The 3 Day Thrush Cure

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Yeast Infection No More Summary


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Thrushes Chats And People

And offered on restaurant menus and sold in supermarkets, either bottled or as thrush pate. The practice has been going on for centuries. While no exact determination has been made regarding the threat this might be to the species, none are in short supply. Elsewhere in Western Europe, people prize such features as the song of the nightingale and have honored the birds through song and poetry. Many of these birds are among the best-loved garden birds throughout the world.

Spotted Quailthrush Cinclosoma punctatum

Physical characteristics Spotted quail-thrushes range in length from 10.2 to 11 inches (26 to 28 centimeters), and weigh between 2.4 and 3.1 ounces (67 and 87 grams). Their plumage is a mottled blend of white, buff, rust or reddish brown, brown, and black. They have light brown heads with a white brow stripe. Their throats are black with a white patch, and their breasts are a pinkish tone. Geographic range The spotted quail-thrush can be found in southeast Australia, Tasmania, and in the Mount Lofty Ranges, in south-central Australia. Spotted quail-thrushes prefer living on the ground, and are sedentary, secretive, and shy. (Illustration by John Megahan. Reproduced by permission.) Habitat Spotted quail-thrushes live in eucalyptus forest with a littered, open floor, and prefer areas on rocky hillsides. Diet Spotted quail-thrushes tend to be insectivores, eating insects and other invertebrates, but they also eat small vertebrates and seeds at times. They pick their prey from the ground...

Thrushes Family Turdidae

Large-eyed, slender-billed, usually strong-legged songbirds. Most species that bear the name thrush are brown-backed with spotted breasts. Robins and bluebirds, etc., suggest their relationship through their speckle-breasted young. Thrushes are often fine singers. FOOD Insects, worms, snails, berries, fruit. RANGE Nearly worldwide.

Yellowthroated laughing thrush

English Yellow-bellied laughing thrush French Garrulaxe a gorge jaune German Gelbbauchhaherling. 9.1 in (23 cm) 1.75 oz (50 g). Elegant thrush-shaped bird with brown mantle, black mask, and yellow throat and underparts. Sexes monomorphic. Nominate subspecies, from the western part of the range, has an olive green nape and crown, while the two isolated eastern subspecies have brilliant dark blue napes and crowns instead. Jiangxi population has a clear, brilliant yellow chest, while birds from Yunan have yellowish gray chests.

Song Thrush

During the first half of the 20th century the Song Thrush was regarded as our most abundant thrush, present in most habitats with trees or mature shrubs. Although a national decline began during the 1970s it was not commented on in LROS Annual Reports until 1993, perhaps because local farmland supports higher densities than the mean national value. Recent distribution and population estimates have been provided by Mitcham (1992) and Warrilow. The former recorded the Song Thrush in 102 (87 ) of the tetrads in Rutland and noted that the absence of birds from some farmland tetrads may have been related to the increasing practice of growing winter barley, which leads to a reduction of spring tillage where birds formerly fed. During the period 1976 to 1984, Warrilow found this species present in 605 tetrads in the counties (95 of the total number of tetrads), with breeding confirmed in 380. He noted that it was largely absent from smaller copses and the interior zones of the largest woods,...

Subspecies and Geographic Variation

Splitting of Western Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis) into Pacific-slope Flycatcher (E. difficilis) and Cordilleran Flycatcher (E. occidentalis). Field studies of Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) leading to the separation of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) and Gunnison Sage-Grouse (C. minimus) prove how valuable these studies of subspecific populations can be. The differences between Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) and Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus) illustrate how subtle the field marks can be between species and why they had been relegated to subspecific status. The shifting of this line between subspecies and species is ongoing. Recording data on location and numbers can prove helpful in completing a picture of a species' distribution or even a new species that has been overlooked.

Conservation status

In 2000, the IUCN listed the rail-babbler and western whipbird as Near Threatened through loss of habitat. The population of the western whipbird in the southwest Australia is endangered. Inappropriate fire regimes are blamed for the small distribution and small numbers. From a low of 17 pairs or less in the 1960s, this species has been slowly recovered through dedicated conservation efforts. Restriction of burning, captive breeding, and transfer of individuals have brought the population to over 500 individuals. The subspecies of the spotted quail-thrush from the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, may have been extirpated through loss of habitat.

Review Of Past Studies

The pioneer of migration studies in the counties was R. Eric Pochin, who looked for evidence of passage in his observations of birds at Croft Hill between 1940 and 1952. He summarised his findings in the LROS Annual Report for 1952 (Pochin 1953), picking out clear movements of Starlings, Greenfinches, Linnets, Tree Pipits (autumn flocks of 20), Meadow Pipits, wagtails, warblers, Song Thrushes, Northern Wheatears, Common Redstarts, Robins, Dunnocks, hirundines and Common Swifts. The predominant direction of autumn passage was to the south-west. Song Thrush

Physical characteristics

Birds in this family range in length from the 5 in (12.5 cm) goldenface to the 11 in (28.0 cm) rusty pitohui (Pitohui fer-rugineus). They are characterized by a robust body and large, rounded head, the latter the reason for the earlier name thickhead bestowed to whistlers and as a group name for the family. Legs and feet are strong, wings broad and rounded, and tail unadorned. The bills are robust, although often of moderate length and, in some of the larger species, rather imposing, especially when attached to the finger of an unwary handler. There is a shrike-like hook at the tip, part of the origin of the name shrike-thrush for the thrush-sized species in the genus Cotturicmda. Together with a well-developed notch, this makes the bill efficient at grasping prey. The most specialized bills are those of the shrike-tits and ploughbill. These are strongly laterally compressed, making them much deeper than wide. The shrike-tits, in particular, are endowed with powerful jaw muscles....

Feeding ecology and diet

Whistlers and their relatives are, for the most part, rather sedate feeders. They search foliage and limbs in a methodical fashion, gleaning prey from leaves or bark, and some pick items from the ground by pouncing. Because these species do not pursue flying insects, most lack rictal bristles of more aerial insectivorous birds. Most species feed in the top to middle of the canopy, but some like the rufous-naped whistler and olive whistler (Pachycephala olivacea) forage in low dense understory. The larger shrike-thrushes and, more frequently, the crested bellbird feed on the ground, hopping in a thrush-like manner. The ploughbill and shrike-tits use their strong bills to strip bark from branches, feeding on insects they expose. The main prey are insects and other small invertebrates. The mangrove-inhabiting white-breasted whistler frequently eats small crabs and small mollusks. The larger species of shrike-thrushes opportunistically take eggs, baby birds, and small vertebrates. Many...

Reproductive biology

In the golden whistler and gray shrike-thrush, both male and female contribute to nest construction, incubation of eggs, and care of young. The rufous whistler is similar, except that the female builds the nest. In shrike-tits, the female does most nest construction and incubation, and both adults care for young additional birds serve as helpers at the nest. Helpers are also known for the whitehead (Mohoua albicilla), in which the female builds the nest. Incubation may be by both parents at some nests or by the female at others. The latter tend to be nests with helpers. After hatching, the chicks are fed by the parents and the helpers. In the whistlers, the nest can range from the substantial bowl built by the red-lored whistler (Pachycephala rufogularis) to the thin, flimsy cup of the mangrove whistler. Twigs and bark comprise much of the coarsely constructed nest of many species. In habitats with taller trees, nests may be higher, up to 33 ft (10 m) in the case of the rufous...

Significance to humans

A few species are shy but most are curious and tame. In parks and inhabited areas, this confiding and vocal nature draws attention. Many species readily respond to human whistles and squeaks, and so can be readily attracted. The gray shrike-thrush will nest in potted plants around houses. For the most part, however, these birds remain unfamiliar to most of the public. 1. Golden whistler (Pachycephala pectoralis) 2. Whitehead (Mohoua albicilla) 3. Regent whistler (Pachycephala schlegelii) 4. Crested bellbird (Oreoica gutturalis) 5. Little shrike-thrush (Colluricincla megarhyncha) 6. Eastern shrike-tit (Falcunculus frontatus) 7. Rufous-naped whistler (Alead-ryas rufinucha) 8. Gray shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica) 9. Rufous whistler (Pachycephala rufiventris) 10. Variable pitohui (Pitohui kirho-cephalus). (Illustration by Emily Damstra)

Ichale Ichla Iskla or Iskle

(iXiikm, iJt'.G, Ytfv or frf MG) Hesychius has three entries (i 1150, 1149, 939) in which he explains Ichale, Ichla and either Iskla or Iskle (both singular forms are possible for a word he cites only in the shared plural form) as alternative spellings of the noun Kichle (q.v. 'Thrush'), all dropping the initial k (k). The endings of Ichale and Iskle imply that the words were used in Attic and or Ionic, while those of Ichla and Iskla would betoken an origin in a West-Greek dialect. Ancient Greek has a few other nouns with variants dropping an initial k, but only one stem (words involving 'rolling' (j . vB , WcAtv8otylUithat tolerates spellings both with and without k in Attic Greek, (a) K hner and Blass 1 (1890 258), Thompson (1936 128).

Ixoboros Ixophagos Ixophoros

(2.65a, citing Aristotle ) Ixophagos, as the names given to Greece's largest Thrush, so called because they allegedly eat nothing other than mistletoe (ixos in Greek) and pine resin. This is the Mistle Thrush (Turdus viscivorus), Europe's largest Thrush, of whose diet mistletoe is still an important part. See also ILIAS, KICHLE and TRICHAS.

Kebios or Kibios or Lebios or Libios or Libyos

(k Pio or Kipio or laPio or lipio or liPuo G) A bird described in Aristotle (HA 609a19-20) as hostile to the Keleos (q.v. Green Woodpecker) is spelled by the manuscripts in all the different ways listed in the heading. A little later (610a8), however, the Keleos is said to be a friend of a bird which some manuscripts spell Laedos (q.v. Blue Rock Thrush) and others Libyos. It is just possible that the variants in 609a19-20 are alternative or mis-spellings of Laedos. If not, the bird of 609a 19-20, however spelled, is unidentifiable.

A network of forest fragments in Kenya constituting one Important Bird Area has been identified for three Globally

The Taita Hills Important Bird Area, south-east Kenya, (total area c.400 ha), is composed of three main massifs. Each holds small fragments of indigenous forest that are now confined to relatively inaccessible hilltops and surrounded by settlements and agriculture. Three Globally Threatened Birds are endemic to these forest remnants, Taita Thrush Turdus helleri (Critically Endangered), Taita Apalis Apalis fuscigularis (Critically Endangered) and Taita White-eye Zosteropssilvanus (Endangered). The land surrounding these natural forests is largely unsuitable for forest-dependent birds, but individuals of several such species, including all three endemics, still manage to move between patches12. As expected, there is more exchange between patches closest to each other, but movements of over 35 km have been recorded. Such studies reveal the importance of even tiny fragments of habitat in enabling the dispersal of species that depend upon such habitat. The role of fragments as'stepping...

Laios or Baios or Phaios

(Xaio or Paio or aio G) A twice-mentioned bird name, which different manuscripts of Aristotle (HA 617a14-17) spell variously La-, Ba- and Pha-, but the one manuscript of Antoninus Liberalis gives La- in both its text (at 19.3) and its two lists of contents. Aristotle says the bird resembles the Common Blackbird but is slightly smaller, doesn't have the (male) Blackbird's yellow beak, and spends its time on rocks and roof tiles. This identifies it as a Blue Rock Thrush (now Monticola solitarius), 20.5 cm in length as against the Blackbird's 24 cm, with a black bill and a habit of perching openly on rocks, the walls of ruins and even town roofs. Today it is fairly common in the Greek-speaking world, tending to replace the Blackbird on higher ground, and recently still breeding on Mount Parnes in Attica. It has been suggested that Lesbia's 'Sparrow' in Catullus (2, 3) was a misidentified Blue Rock Thrush, but see STROUTHOS (1b) below. See also LAEDOS and KYANOS, which may perhaps be...

Cuckoo Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus

In the 19th century Haines described it as abundant everywhere in Rutland and noted that the average date of arrival between 1736 and 1800 was April 21st but that from 1899 to 1905 it had been earlier (April 13th, very similar to today). He knew of just three March reports, the earliest being March 15th 1776. A measure of its abundance is that on one occasion 12 birds were seen together near Uppingham on May 12th 1899. In addition to the species mentioned below, the following were listed as foster parents Robin, Song Thrush, Sedge Warbler, Common Whitethroat, Spotted Flycatcher and Linnet. Browne recorded it as close to Leicester as Aylestone and Knighton.

Dippers Family Cinclidae

A chunky, slate-colored bird of rushing mountain streams. Shaped like a wren (size of a small thrush) tail stubby. Legs pale, eyelid white. Note bobbing motions, slaty color, flashing eyelid. Dives, submerges. Juvenile Has pale bill. voice Call a sharp, buzzy zeet. Song clear and ringing, mockingbird-like in form (much repetition of notes), but higher, more wrenlike, similar species Wrens, habitat Fast-flowing streams in mountains and canyons more rarely pond edges. Nests under bridges, behind waterfalls. Some birds move to lower elevations in winter.

Rufousthroated dipper

Sometimes grouped with Cinclus leucocephalus. Generally similar to other dipper species however, apparently it does not dive into rushing water or swim as frequently as the others. The bowing and dipping behavior also seems to be absent, replaced by a wing-flicking which displays the white flash on the primary feathers. Song is similar to that of white-capped dipper, but more thrush-like call a sharp zeet-zeet.

Evolution and systematics

Nearly a century ago, Ernst Hartert, Curator of the incredible Rothschild collection of preserved birds, observed What can't be classified is regarded as a babbling thrush. In the opinions of many of today's ornithologists, Hartert then proceeded to confuse matters further. The convoluted history of babbler classification is well treated in Sibley and Ahlquist's Phylogeny and Classification of Birds, and the reader is best referred to that book. Suffice it to say that exactly what a babbler is, and how it should be classified, has been, and remains, a controversy among ornithologists. The DNA research of Charles Sibley and his associates has led them to place the babblers in the family Sylviidae, together with many of the birds traditionally called Old World warblers. Within this family, they have divided the babblers into two subfamilies. Two genera, the laughing thrushes (Garru- lax) and liocichlas (Liockhla), are given their own subfamily, Garrulacinae. The other babblers,...

Yellowstone National Park Montana Wyoming ami Idaho

We followed a side trail up the slope toward Solitary Geyser, passing through forest that had not yet been disturbed by the thermal activities below. Ruby-crowned kinglets sang from the upper foliage, a rollicking jibby jibby jibby and tsee tsee tsee. A hermit thrush sang its incredibly beautiful series of flutelike phrases, one after the other, from the top of a nearby conifer. Few songs possess the deep-forest quality of the hermit thrush's song. Songbirds serenaded me from the adjacent forest as I moved upward along the wide, easy trail. Hermit thrushes, American robins, ruby-crowned kinglets, mountain chickadees, dark-eyed juncos, and chipping sparrows formed a welcoming chorus. From the open slopes below the trail were singing white-crowned sparrows. Pretty, pretty, pretty echoed from the slope behind me. I turned just as a Townsend's solitaire flew from a nearby perch to one further up the rocky slope. I could clearly see its grayish body, buff wing bars, and the white, outer...

OFILE Northern Wheatear

Whereas the northern wheatear is a bird of open country, the green cochoa (Cochoa viridis), a closely related member of thrush family, inhabits mountain forests. Found at altitudes of 10,000-16,500' in the Himalayas and other mountains of-southeastern Asia, the green cochoa hunts in deep undergrowth for insects. It forages in a similar manner to the wheatear but its more powerful bill enables it to tackle larger prey.The green cochoa's nest is more refined than that of the wheatear constructed within tree foliage from mosses, leaves and plant fibers. A far larger bird than the wheatear the male green cochoa's head is bluish-violet, while his wings and tail vary from gray to powder-blue. -l

Tiandelier National Monumenty New Mexico

Early mornings in Frijoles Canyon are like being in a great cathedral. The high canyon walls, stately trees that guard the banks of Frijoles Creek, and reverberant birdsong create an atmosphere of peace and contentment. The sounds echo back and forth from one side of the canyon to the other, producing a mantra-like aura. The loud, descending songs of canyon wrens, twittering calls of white-throated swifts, clear whistles of solitary vireos, loud caroling of American robins, and flutelike renderings of hermit thrushes, all blended together and amplified by the canyon walls, are more wondrous than a great choir at its very best. The other vireo of the riparian habitats is the very plain warbling vireo that sings a loud, melodious warble, more like that of warblers than the defined whistle-songs of vireos. Several other songbirds, not already mentioned, were also found along Frijoles Canyon that morning ash-throated flycatchers, white-breasted nuthatches, house wrens, hermit thrushes,...

Bighorn Canyon National iRecreation 7Lreay Montana and Wyoming

Yellowtai Reservoir Wyoming Fish Species

Western meadowlarks often perch on fence posts or shrubs so that their bright yellow underparts and contrasting black V-shaped breast bands actually glow in the morning light. But their plumage cannot compare with their wonderful songs, typical of the western grasslands and fields a series of rich, gurgling, flutelike, double-notes that Arthur C. Bent stated had the flutelike quality of the wood thrush with the rich melody of the Baltimore oriole. When I was a kid growing up in Idaho, my mother often told me that the western meadowlark was singing, Salt Lake City is a pretty little city.

Chiricahua National Monument jlrizona

Bird Stencil Images

In summary, the park checklist includes 179 species, of which 112 are listed as either permanent or summer residents and, therefore, are assumed to nest. Of those 112 species, none are water birds, 19 are hawks and owls, and 8 are warblers. Twenty-five of the 179 species are listed only as winter visitors northern harrier ferruginous hawk red-naped and Williamson's sapsuckers red-breasted nuthatch ruby-crowned kinglet western and mountain bluebirds Townsend's solitaire hermit thrush American pipit cedar waxwing northern cardinal pyrrhuloxia green-tailed towhee chipping, vesper, savannah, grasshopper, song, Lincoln's, and white-crowned sparrows lark bunting dark-eyed junco and pine siskin. Several of these most certainly also occur in migration.

Wood Warblers Family Paruiidae

Sutton Warbler Song

When breeding, more often heard than seen. Usually seen walking on leafy floor of woods. Suggests a small thrush, but striped rather than spotted beneath. Orangish patch on crown bordered by blackish stripes. White eye-ring. voice Song an emphatic TEACHer, TEACHer, TEACHer, etc., in crescendo. In some areas, monosyllabic, TEACH, TEACH, TEACH, etc. Call a loud, sharp tshuk. similar species Waterthrushes. See also spotted thrushes (p. 314). habitat Near or on ground in leafy and pine-oak woods in migration, also thickets. 5 in. (15 cm). Suggests a small thrush. Walks along water's edge and teeters like a Spotted Sandpiper. Brown-backed, with striped underparts, strong eyebrow stripe both eyebrow and underparts vary from whitish to pale yellow. Throat striped. voice Call a sharp chink. Song a vigorous, rapid twit twit twit sweet sweet sweet chew chew chew (chews drop in pitch). similar species Louisiana Waterthrush, Ovenbird. habitat Swamps, bogs, wet woods with standing...

Qlacier National Turk JMontana and Waterton Lakes National Tark Silberta

Forest where lodgepole pine, white spruce, and Douglas fir are usually dominant whitebark pine can also be common, and limber pine is often present in patches on the eastern slopes. In the McDonald Creek watershed on the west side, where the Pacific influence is greatest, western redcedar and western hemlock are abundant. Shrubs are plentiful in these zones, being represented by Canada buffaloberry, black and red twinberry, elderberry, rusty-leaf menziesia, and others. The common birds of the mixed coniferous forests include the violet-green swallow, Steller's jay, Swainson's thrush, golden-crowned kinglet, yellow-rumped and MacGillivray's warblers, and pine siskin. Two indicator birds of the redcedar-hemlock forests are the varied thrush and Townsend's warbler. Varied thrush Varied thrush From almost anywhere along the trail the eerie, bell-like songs of varied thrushes were heard. Most of the songs rang from the foliage of western redcedars, and most of the birds were hidden from...

Alaska And Arctic Nesters And Vagrants

Aguila Cazando

7 in. (18cm).Note uniform rusty brown cast above and grayish flanks. No strong eye-ring (may have dull whitish ring) on grayish face. Of all our brown thrushes, this is the least spotted (spots often indistinct). voice Song liquid, breezy, ethereal, wheeling downward vee-ur, vee-ur, veer, veer. Call a down-slurred phew or view. similar species Easily confused with russet-backed race of Swain son's Thrush (Pacific Coast states), but latter has distinct buffy eye-ring or spectacles, more spotting on breast, browner sides and flanks, and different vocalizations. Also Gray-cheeked Thrush, habitat Moist deciduous woods, willow and alder thickets along streams and meadows in pine forests. SWAINSON'S THRUSH Catharus ustulatus Fairlycommon M503 7 in. (18 cm). This spotted thrush is marked by its conspicuous buffy eye-ring or spectacles, buff on cheeks and upper breast. Interior and eastern forms are dull olivey brown above subspecies in Pacific Coast region much more russet. voice Song is...

Coliiformes Mousebirds

Landesmuseum Darmstadt Fossilien

The species of Sandcoleus, Anneavis, and Eoglaucidium are osteologically very similar and share robust feet and a thrush-like bill of generalized proportions. The caudal portion of the sternum exhibits a derived morphology in that the intermediate trabecles originate from the lateral ones, and the medial incisions are thus deeper than the lateral ones. In contrast to extant mousebirds, these fossil species still have a foramen for the supracoracoideus nerve on the coracoid. The tarsometatarsus has a characteristic shape, and, also in contrast to extant mousebirds, these species have a hypotarsus which bears two furrows for the deep flexor tendons of the toes, which may be closed to one or two canals (in extant Coliiformes there is only a single canal). The proximal phalanges of all anterior toes are abbreviated, whereas in extant Coliidae this is only true for the proximal phalanges of the fourth toe. The ungual pedal phalanges are very long and raptor-like.

Pcky IMountain National Park Colorado

All along the Bear Lake Trail that evening, two or three hermit thrushes serenaded me from the adjacent forest. Their songs are some of the most beautiful in all the bird world, and they provided a wilderness character to the Bear Lake area that somehow was inconsistent with the number of human visitors I encountered along the trail. I wondered if any of the people I passed were aware of the quality of song nature was providing them. I stopped to listen, and the song continued it opened with clear flutelike notes, followed by ethereal, bell-like tones, ascending and descending in no fixed order, rising until it reaches dizzying vocal heights and notes fade away in silvery tinkle (Terres). On one especially bright, sunny morning, I walked the Deer Mountain Trail to sample the bird life of the park's ponderosa pine community. I found this relatively arid environment filled with birds. Solitaire time had begun at dawn and continued for another hour at least a dozen Townsend's solitaires...

Timpanogos Cave National 1Monument Utah

With a Townsend's solitaire on its nesting grounds. This western thrush usually spends its breeding season on high, rocky, inaccessible cliffs, often just below treeline. It builds its nest on the ground or in crevices on steep slopes. Most summertime sightings of these birds are at a considerable distance and from awkward angles. But at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Townsend's solitaires sit on rocky pinnacles, open snags, and treetops along the upper parts of the Cave Trail, and seem oblivious to one's presence. I spent more than 20 minutes at the overlook near the cave exit admiring a solitaire, up close and personal. During my prolonged sighting near the cave exit, I discovered that, unlike most songbirds, it barely opened its bill while singing. And as soon as it had uttered its song, it spent several seconds preening itself, ruffling its feathers, and then sat perfectly still once again. A few seconds later it sang again, a melodious warble, very different from the song of...

The Charadrius Cock And Hen Dove

114 IN the Vulgate and Septuagint versions of Deut. xiv. 18 the Jews were forbidden to eat the flesh of the charadrius among other birds. Liddell and Scott write of the charadrius as being a stone curlew, or thick-kneed bustard, which is very greedy. The sight of it was supposed by the Greeks to cure the jaundice. In the Bestiaries this bird is drawn like a white thrush or plover, though in some cases it is represented as a huge bird with curly feathers, and long neck as in the mutilated Bestiary in the British Museum (Vit. D. 1).


Gaining a familiarity with a wide range of habitats will greatly enhance your overall knowledge of the birds in a specific region, increase your skills, and add to your enjoyment of birding. It is unlikely you will ever see a meadowlark in an oak woodland or a Wood Thrush in a meadow. Birders know this, and if they want to go out to run up a large day list, they do not remain in one habitat but shift from site to site based on time and species diversity for a given type of habitat.

Botalis Boutalis

(Praxali , Pouxali G) An Aesopic fable (48 Hausrath), about a bird with an elsewhere unrecorded name (Botalis in version 1, Boutalis in version 3) and a Bat, tells us that the bird was quiet in the daytime but sang at night. Common or Thrush Nightingale seems the obvious identification (see AEDON above), but why then should it be given a name that is closer to the Arabic word bulbul used for two Arabian and African songsters, the White-spectacled (aka Yellow-vented) and Common Bulbul (respectively Pycnonotus xanthopygus and P. barbatus) It seems unlikely that the Aesopic versions were borrowing a story that originated in Arabia about a Bulbul, because the Arabian bird sings normally during daylight hours (particularly at dawn and dusk), but not (unlike the Common Bulbul in Kenya ) at night.

Brenthos Brinthos

(1) A land bird, described by Aristotle (HA 615a15-17) as a song bird of woods and mountains, but spelled both Brenthos and Brinthos in the manuscripts. Since Hesychius (P 1099) alleges that Brenthos is identified by some people as the Kossyphos (normally Common Blackbird , Turdusmerula see KOPSICHOS), it is likely that Aristotle had in mind particularly that bird, which in Greece today typically frequents hills up to the tree line, along perhaps with two other hill birds that are closely related to the Blackbird and generally similar in appearance the Ring Ouzel (Turdus torquatus) and Blue Rock Thrush (Monticola solitarius).


(with variant spellings Kenklos, Kichlos, Kigelos, Kinchlos, Kindalos, Kinkalos and Kinklis apparently there were several different spellings of this bird's name in antiquity, but it is difficult to determine which of the ones given above were accepted variants, or mis-spellings, or manuscript errors G KlyKlo , KeyKlo , Kl lo , KiynloQ Kly lo , KivSaloQ KlyKalo , KiyKlfc G, motacilla L) Aristotle says (1) that the Kinklos is smaller than a Thrush, lives by inland waters, and wags its tail (HA 593b 4-7), (2) that it lives by the sea, is hard to catch but easily tamed, and can't keep its hind parts still (HA 615a 204). Aelian (NA 12.9 cf. Philes 492-3), after alleging that being unable to build its own nest, it lays its eggs in other birds' nests, goes on to cite Aristophanes (frs 29 and 147 KasselAustin the latter compares a man bent backwards to a Kinklos) and Autocrates (fr. 1 Kassel-Austin girls sinking on their haunches and springing up again resemble the Kinklos). Anaxandrides...


Many of these details point in the direction of the Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria), which exactly matches the Aristotelian sizing (15-17.5 cm), has large feet and a long bill, and creeps over the steepest rocks far generally from human habitation it still breeds on one Greek island (Thasos), and winters on others (Corfu, Zakynthos, Cythera, Chios). The Wallcreeper, however, is not dark blue, but mainly grey with splashes of deep red on its wings, and two alternative identifications have been advanced Blue Rock Thrush (Monticola solitaria (the right colour, but at 21-23 cm, it's too big, and elsewhere apparently called Laios or Laedos qq.v.) and Western Rock Nuthatch (Sitta neumayer also the right colour, but at 14-15.5 cm, it's the same size as a Chaffinch) both of these birds, however, tolerate human proximity.

Laedos or Libyos

(XaeSo or XiPuo G) Aristotle (HA 610a9-11) describes this bird (the manuscripts divide between the two spellings of its name) as a friend of the Keleos (q.v. Green Woodpecker) that lives in rocks and mountains, and is happy whatever its habitat. This one mention may now be augmented by the illspelled list of bird names in P. Amsterdam 94.II.30 which includes an entry Lae , with the word ending torn off, but the only bird name which begins with these three letters is Laedos. Thompson's suggestion that Laedos may be an alternative spelling of Laios (q.v. Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius, whose habitat is predominantly coastal and montane rocks) is plausible but uncertain.


(palaKoKpaveu G) Aristotle (HA 617a32-b5) gives an account of the Malakokraneus ( 'Soft head') it always settles on the same spot, has a large cartilaginous head, is a little smaller than the Kichle (q.v. Thrush 19-29 cm), with a small strong round mouth, ash-coloured all over, good on its feet but bad on the wing, and is generally caught by a Glaux (q.v. Little Owl). The description best fits two of Greece's Shrikes the Lesser Grey (L. minor 20 cm), now rare in summer and on passage, but apparently much commoner before 1970, and the Red-Backed (Lanius collyrio 17 cm), today a common summer visitor and passage migrant. The Lesser Grey has an ashy-blue-grey crown and back, while the male Red-backed is bluish-grey on crown, mantle, upper back, rump and upper tail. Both have largish heads and like to perch on an exposed low branch or post, from which they make an untidy downward pounce to pick up insects or other prey on the ground. The Red-backed has short wings and an undulating...

Species accounts

Black Faced Pitta

English Thrush-like woodcreeper French Grimpar enfuma German Grauwangenbaumsteiger Spanish Trepatronco Pardo. Ant thrushes The family Formicariidae contains about 244 species of birds variously known as ant thrushes, antbirds, antcatchers, antpittas, antshrikes, or antwrens. They are among the most widespread and abundant birds of tropical and subtropical re restrial in their foraging preference, while those in the Formicariidae group are mostly arboreal. Only a few species, however, forage in the uppermost tree-crown part of the canopy or inhabit open shrubby areas exposed to the sun. Occasionally, they may be seen bathing in shallows of quiet forest streams or in rain puddles. None of the ant thrushes or antbirds flies far rather, they make short-distance flights within a territory or local foraging habitat. When they sense an invasion of their territory by a competitor, males tend to fly directly through the undergrowth towards the source of a specific song some species respond...

Noua auis

(only L) Pliny (HN 10.135) noted the arrival of some nouae aues ('new birds') in north Italy (near Cremona) during the spring of 69 AD. They resembled Thrushes in appearance, were a little smaller than Doves, and when cooked had an appealing flavour. Tacitus (Histories 2.50) seems to be referring to one of these new arrivals which (in the same area, on the same occasion) perched in a grove and was not frightened away by the presence of people or other birds. Several attempts have been made to identify these newcomers, as (1) Grey Partridge, Perdixperdix (so Harduin, Capponi on the grounds that its arrival in Italy from the north was fairly recent). This bird, however, neither resembles a Thrush nor perches in trees yet although it is the same size (29-31 cm) as most Doves (26-34 cm), it is smaller than the Woodpigeon (40-42 cm), and obviously edible. (2) Pallas' Sandgrouse, Syrrhaptesparadoxus (so Thompson largely because this bird, which normally keeps to Asia east of the Caspian...

Verithin Pencils

This head study of a thrush shows the delicate layering of colors necessary for creating the bird's texture. Its feathers have the same grainy look that this pencil produces. Look closely and you will see one color layered on top of another. The sharp point of the pencil creates delicate lines, which replicate the texture of the bird. THRUSH

Cape longbilled lark

Male 7.5-7.9 in (19-20 cm) female 6.3-6.7 in (16-17 cm) weight unknown. Males clearly larger than females, but sexes do not differ in respect to plumage color or pattern. Plumage brown-grayish, heavily streaked, breast marked with dark spots. Species reminiscent of a thrush with a long, decurved bill. Hind claw is long and straight.


Mistle Thrush 1 his large, pale thrush, with a bold pattern of spots on its underside, is most often seen on the ground, though it sometimes perches in trees. It feeds in pairs or family parties, taking invertebrates on open ground and berries from trees and bushes. Pairs or i individual birds can be seen vigorously defending a source of food, such as a fruit tree in winter, from other thrushes. f The llight call is a harsh, grating charter, while the song, which is loud and clear, consists of short, musical phrases. NEST a cup nest made of grass and moss, usually in the fork of a tree, often higher than nests of other thrushes.

Turdus viscivorus

Mistle Thrushes in 420 tetrads in the counties (66 of the total number of tetrads), with breeding confirmed in 213. He found it most numerous in Charnwood, central and southern Leicestershire it was sparingly distributed in the extreme west and north-east where suitable habitat is more limited. The relatively high population levels in Charnwood were confirmed by Webster (1997), who recorded definite or probable breeding in 62 of the 1-km squares surveyed, whilst the more sparse distribution in the east was confirmed by Mitcham (1992), who recorded Mistle Thrushes in only 59 (50 ) of the tetrads in Rutland, where it was absent from some cereal-growing areas. In 1989 this species was found in four green spaces surveyed within the Leicester city boundary (Abbey Park, Aylestone Meadows, Knighton Park and Western Park), with two or three territories recorded at each site (Fray et al. 1990). The Leicestershire Garden Bird Survey between January 1996 and June 2005 found it to be the 21st...


(nop9upi G) The name of an undescribed chorus bird in Aristophanes (Birds 304), and twice mentioned by Ibycus, once (fr. 317 36 b Page) where it is called 'long-winged', and once (fr. 317 36 a 4) where its name is amplified to Lathiporphyris (q.v. 'hidden' Porphyris) and it is perched 'on topmost leaves'. It is generally considered to be an alternative name for the ( female) Porphyrion (cf. e.g. Ampelis Ampelion qq.v.), since the Purple Gallinule is long-winged (90-100 cm wing span 45-50 cm length), and its decription 'hidden' well suits its fondness for wetland reeds which conceal it from view, althogh the Gallinule does not habitually perch high up in trees. Callimachus (fr. 414 Pfeiffer, cited by Athenaeus 388e-f), however, claims that Porphyris and Porphyrion are totally different birds. In that case Porphyris remains hard to identify, although its name presumably implies dark bluish and or reddish colouring such as is possessed most vividly by the male Blue Rock Thrush (Monticola...

Poisonous Bird

Nest can be as high as 33 feet (10 meters) from the ground. In more arid regions where tree growth is limited, the nests will be placed in shrubs and low vegetation within 3 feet (100 centimeters) of the forest floor. The sandstone shrike-thrush, which lives in a region with few trees, will build its nest on a cliff edge or in a rock crevice. Oddly, the crested bellbird places paralyzed caterpillars along the rim of the nest when the eggs are incubated.


Pitta Moluccensis

Original taxonomic treatments of the pittas led to their inclusion in the crow family, and subsequently in the thrush family. It was not until the early 1800s that the pittas were designated as a distinct family and correctly classified as sub-oscines. More recently, DNA hybridization and morphological analyses have convincingly demonstrated Pittidae is monophyletic and a sister taxon to the broadbills of Africa and Asia. Pittas have round bodies, large heads, long legs, and short tails. These features reflect the terrestrial habits shared by all pittas. The pittas are also strikingly similar in size, with most species measuring about 8 in (20 cm) in length. Pittas have stout bills, often hooked at the tip, not unlike the bills of many thrushes (Turdidae).


Medium-sized, thrush-like, stocky, strong-footed, and typically stout-billed songbirds. Family includes sexually and cryptically monochromatic to dramatically sexually dichromatic species. Bowerbirds are renowned for the bower building behavior of males of polygynous (one male mated with two or more females) species.


English Melodious jay thrush, spectacled thrush, Chinese thrush French Garrulaxe hoamy German Augenbrauen-h herling. 9 in (22 cm). Thrush-shaped. Uniformly brown with fine darker streaking. Distinctive white eye ring, with long rearwards extension lending an Egyptian look. Bill pale. Taiwanese subspecies more heavily streaked with much reduced eye ring.


(rpixot G) A name mentioned only by Aristotle (HA 617a20-21), who describes it as one of three types of Thrush (Kichle, q.v.), the size of a Blackbird (Kottyphos, q.v.), with a piercing (or highpitched) call. This is almost universally identified as the Song Thrush (Turdusphilomelos), which is slightly smaller than the Blackbird (23 cm 24-25 cm). In Greece, it's basically a common winter visitor lacking its spring song but retaining the short, high-pitched alarm call. Tsichla, its modern Greek name, may well derive from it.

Marsh Sparrows

Sparrow Identification Chart

A large, plump sparrow most subspecies have rusty rump and tail. Action towhee-like, kicking among dead leaves and other ground litter. Breast heavily streaked with triangular spots these often cluster in large blotch on upper breast. Fox Sparrows vary widely. Many subspecies can be roughly divided into four basic types, with breeding range noted (1) Red subspecies bright rusty with rusty back stripes (northern and eastern) (2) Sooty subspecies dusky or sooty head, back (unstreaked), and upper breast (Northwest coast) (3) Slate-colored subspecies gray-headed and gray-backed (unstreaked), yellowish-based bill (Rockies, Great Basin) and (4) Thick-billed subspecies similar to 3 but large-billed (southern Cascades, CA mountains). In fall and winter, some of these types intermingle. voice Song brilliant and musical a varied arrangement of short clear notes and sliding whistles. Call varies by type, a sharp chink (type 4) to flatter chup. similar species Hermit Thrush has...

Kitta Kissa

(Kixxa, Kicca G, pica L) Kitta was the spelling in Attic Greek, Kissa in Ionic and the Koine the latter form survives to this day in Greece as the name for the Eurasian Jay, Garrulus glandarius, still a common resident there. Aristotle's descriptions of this bird are concise and accurate it has a great variety of calls, a different one virtually every day, lines its nest in a tree with hair and wool, lays about nine eggs (cf. Pliny NH 10.165 the correct range is 5-7 3-10 ), and makes a hidden store of acorns (HA 615b19-23, 616a1-3 acorns are a staple item in the Jay's diet, and each autumn a single bird will cache up to 5,000) it is the size of a Mistle Thrush (617a18-20 in fact, slightly bigger, 31-34 cm Thrush 26-29 cm) its young are hatched blind (GA 774b26-9). Other Greek writers supplement this information with comments on the Jay's multicoloured plumage (Soranus p. 215 Rose in fact, a handsome pattern of pinkish grey-brown, grey, white, black and blue), its omnivorous gluttony...

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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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