Red Junglefowl

Small, shy groups of this species live at the edge of rain forest and secondary growth (regrown after forest clearance), scratching for invertebrates and plant material. They can be detected by the crowing of the males. NEST A hollow formed by body pressure, lined with dry grass and bamboo leaves, and hidden in dense undergrowth. DISTRIBUTION From the E. Himalayas through S. China gSy to the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and Tr b t c'lc Philippines. mate closely resembles its domesticated...

Jamaican Tody

Small and rounded, with a plump body but small feet, this is a hunter that sits and waits for prey. It watches from an exposed perch and darts out to catch passing insects or snatch them from the undersides of overhanging leaves. The call is a short cherek. Todies live singly or in pairs, and defend territories on wooded hillsides. NEST a small burrow up to 11 in (30 cm) into a low bank. typical toc y posture with uptiltcd bill

Common Crank

I'or the most part a plain-looking cranc of grassland and marshes, this bird's presence is given away by its bright head color and far-carrying calls. The calls are used as part of the pairing display and arc-also tittered in flight. The diet consists of insects, frogs, mice, seeds, and other parts of green plants. In winter, cranes visit tlricr habitats, such as farmland. Nest A mound of reeds, grass, and other vegetation, with a shallow hollow on top, often in a marsh and located near, or in,...

Distribi Tion

I his owl inhabits the cold forests and birch scrub of the far north. It has a round head with very large feather disks on each side of its face. The tops of these stand like bold, questioning eyebrows over the small eyes. The Great Gray Ow l looks sturdy but is in fact moderately sized and slender its large appearance is created by a deep, dense layer of feathers extending to the toes and insulating it against cold weather. This species hunts both by day and by night, watching from a perch and...

Distribi Thin

A bird of open country that has adapted to the town environment, this species is often seen searching the ground in flight, hovering until it sees prey, and dropping gradually before the final pounce. Prey includes voles, mice, and smaller creatures such as grasshoppers or beetles. In towns and suburbs, sparrows are often taken. Prey is carried to a perch, plucked if necessary, and eaten. For a resting place, the bird often selects a perch with a wide view. The Common Kestrel flies with small,...

Eurasian Dotterei

I his species of plover breeds on high mountains, where the summer is short. The female is slightly larger than the male, and her breeding plumage has stronger colors. She takes the dominant role in breeding and displays to attract a mate. After the eggs arc laid, the male helps incubate them and tend the young. Sometimes the female mates with several males, w ho each incubate their own clutch of eggs and care for the young. This species is unaccustomcd to disturbance and is often tame and...

Sulfurcrested Cockatoo

I lie snowy plumage of this beautiful cockatoo is often soiled, as the bird feeds on the ground in open locations, such as farmers' fields. Large Hocks utter screeching calls as they feed on seeds, buds, leaves, and fruits of plants, also digging up roots, tubers, and bulbs with their bills. They visit trees to roost by night, and to rest in the midday heat. NliST An unlined hollow in a tree. New Guinea and N E and S. Australia.

Distribution

A dark-backed seabird with a white underside, the Manx Shearwater flies low over the sea, making rapid, tilting glides alternating with quick wingbeats. The shearwater feeds at the surface or in shallow plunge-dives, taking small fish, squid, crustaceans, and offal from fishing boats. Nesting colonies are located 011 hilly offshore islands Flocks are seen floating offshore, waiting to visit their nests after dark. They eventually go ashore, amid a chorus of crowing calls. NEST A hollow,...

Mqb

Ruffled appearance due to wet feathers A bird of coniferous forests. Townsend's Warbler is usually found high in the trees, where it forages actively for small insects. The male's black throat contrasts noticeably with the streaked, yellow throat of the female. NEST A cup nest of fine vegetation, lined with liner plant material, high in a conifer. DISTRIBUTION Breeds in W. Canada and W' USA Winters distribution Female Costa Rica. This bird is usually seen in the treetops, where it feeds on...

Ezh

In many cases, Stage 3 offers a precise identification, as in the ease of the Emu or the Kakapo below. In other cases, Stage 3 refers you to a group of species, such as Pheasants at the bottom of this page. This means that your bird is one of the pheasants illustrated in the book (on pages 113-115 or on 117) or a similar pheasant that is not included in the book. In a group reference of this kind, the name of the type of bird is given in the plural. I'age references...

Graybacked Sparrow Lark

A lark of bare, dry places, this species is often seen walking or running on the ground. Occasionally, it settles on a branch after a short, low flight. The diet consists of seeds, plants, and small invertebrates. NEST A cup nest sunk in the ground, beside a stone or tuft.

Budgerigar

In the wild this familiar small parrot lives in nomadic flocks that search for seeding grasses and other vegetation in their arid habitat. Flight is strong and rapid. Flocks rarely stay long in one place, but the birds settle and breed in holes available during the brief period of plant growth that follows rain. NliST An unlined hole or hollow in a tree trunk, a rotten stump, or a fencepost. remark Many color variations have been bred in captivity, but the w ild bird DlSTRlBt tion _ is always...

Andean Hillstar

A bird of high mountains, this species lives all year round in the sparse vegetation and grassland of the Puna Plateau in the Andes. On cold nights it becomes torpid (inactive, maintaining a reduced body temperature) to conserve energy, reviving and becoming active in warm sunlight. In open, windy places it uses its strong feet to cling to branches instead of hovering to feed. It takes nectar from flowers, also catching insects. Andean Hillstars are unusual for their territorial behavior. The...

I

N l-'act, thk money spent on watching cach year to places like Cape May in birds (on equipment, travel, books, and art) is staggering. Surveys show that hireling brings millions of One indispensable contribution birds have made to our civilization was to provide quills (right) for writing. The central quill of a large feather, usually from a goose, was trimmed f with a penknife and the point sharpened and split to form a nib. The hollow quill is ideally suited for holding, the ink. New Jersey,...

American Robin

In its original wild state, this bird lived purely in woodland, but it has now become a familiar sight in town parks and suburban gardens. It is primarily a ground-feeding bird and is seen pulling up worms, scratching among leaves, and eating insects and snails. Fruit is taken from orchards. The short, melodious song is heard from early spring. nest a bulky nest made of twigs, grass, and mud, in a wide variety of situations at any height from ground level to the trectops. DISTRIBUTION Canada,...

Guira Cuckoo

Almost always encountered in small groups of 8-10 individuals, this is a highly sociable species. It lives on dry, grassy plains with widely scattered trees. At night it roosts in flocks that perch closely together on the branch of a tree. Resting in daytime in a similar fashion, the birds huddle in a tight knot, occasionally preening each other. Flight consists of a labored series of flaps and swoops on short, rounded wings, with a pronounced, dipping swoop when landing. Birds are seen flying...

Shorttailed Babbler

A sure footed babbler, this species keeps close to the ground in forest undergrowth. It feeds on beetles and other insects. The call is a metallic whistle, followed by a churring and chattering sound. large NliST a cup nest on the feet grip ground, sheltered, and partly the perch enclosed by a large, fallen leaf. firmly Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo.

Pheasanttailed Jacana

I his bird lives on lakes and swamps, its chief adaptations being long legs, toes, and claws. These enable it to spread its weight, so that it can walk on the floating leaves of waterplants. It feeds on invertebrates, frogs, and fish. A female may mate with up to ten males, each of these incubating a clutch and raising his own brood. Long legs, toes, and claws enable this bird to walk on floating waterplants. It can swim, but does so reluctantly, and will occasionally fly, usually slowly with...

Nsjs

With its checkered plumage, this seabird was likened to a pigeon by seamen aboard the whaling vessels around which it flocked hence its traditional name, the Cape Pigeon. Its flight pattern consists of rapid wingbeats alternating with stiff-winged glides. To feed, it swims and reaches down or dives for small fish and other animals in the plankton. Cape Petrels breed in small groups or colonies on shores and islands. NliST a shallow depression in a layer of loose rock fragments, on a rocky...

Rainbow Lorikeet

A vividly colored and noisy bird, this species is often seen in chattering and screeching flocks, feeding in flowering trees. It is common in lowland forests and also in open woodland and parkland. Birds feed on pollen and nectar, also eating blossoms, some seeds and fruit, and occasional insects. NliST In a cavity in a hollow limb or tree trunk. DISTRIBUTION Parts of E. Indonesia New Guinea S.W. Pacific islands to New Caledonia N., K., and S. Australia. Plumage varies over the range...

Distriki Thin

Known for its striking pattern and tinkling song, this mountain bird occurs in woodland and scrub on the Andean uplands, extending upward into high-altitude pasture and farmland. Usually occurring in pairs or small groups, ir feeds on fruit pulp, seeds, leaves, and buds. NliST A cup nest made of coarse grass, lined with finer grass, in a tree or thicket. DISTRIKI ITION Andes from Venezuela to Bolivia.

Strildidae

Feet can grip several grass stems at once I ypically a bird of long grass in open country, sometimes near water, this is one of the commonest species of African finch. Small flocks feed on the ground or on standing grass, taking seeds (mainly of grasses) and sometimes small insects. NEST An oval structure with a tubular side entrance, made of grass and lined with soft feathers or grass flowers, in a grass clump or low in a bush. DISTRIBUTION Africa south of the Sahara. Small populations...

Papuan Lorikeet

Living in tropical forests on mountainsides, this colorful parrot feeds in the trees on the flowers of epiphytes (independent plants that grow on the branches). It drinks the nectar and also eats pollen and the blossoms of the epiphytes, as well as taking berries and seeds. Its long, curving tail is an encumbrance as it hops jerkily through the twigs. Papuan Lorikeets occur in pairs or small parties and are seen in the upper branches of the forest. Their flight is direct hut not fast, with the...

Namaqua Dove

A tiny, ground-feeding dove with a long, tapering tail, this hird is similar in size, shape, and life-style to the Budgerigar (seep.177). Only the male has a black face mask and bright bill. Both sexes have chestnut-orange on the wing black face feathers, revealed in flight. Namaqua Doves fly rapidly, with and throat quick, irregular wingbeats. They occur in dry, open country, scrub, and farmland, and are seen singly, in pairs, or glossy dark 'n Part'es- They feed on the ground, taking wing...

Scaled Ground Roller

With a heavy head and a stotit bill, this is a quiet, secretive bird of the shady rain forest floor, preferring darker and more heavily vegetated areas. The scaly pattern on its plumage provides camouflage against leaf litter. In spite of having long legs, usually associated with rapid movement on the ground, this is a sluggish bird. It takes a few steps or makes a short run before pausing and remaining still. Prey items include earthworms, insects, spiders, and snails. The short, rounded wings...

Common Peafowl

As a wild bird, the Common Peafowl (commonly known as the Peacock) lives in deciduous tropical forests and feeds in open places such as clearings or cultivated fields. Its diet consists of seeds, fruit, and other parts of plants, as well as small animals ranging from insects to mice. The male's long and colorful train is not the bird's tail but an ornament, composed of some 150 large feathers growing from his lower back. The real tail is short and dull-colored, hidden underneath the train. The...

Hyacinth Macaw

Deep blue plumage offset by the yellow chin and eye patches, large size, a long tail, and long, narrow wings identify this species, which is the largest of all the parrots. It almost always occurs in pairs, which fly closely together. Groups of pairs or small family parties form small flocks. Hyacinth Macaws are often seen in palm groves. They are also seen in more open areas and swamps with some tall trees, anil in forests along watercourses. The diet includes palm nuts and other nuts, seeds,...

Cockatiel

A strong-living parrot of arid country, this species looks like a cockatoo but is more agile and active in its behavior. The Cockatiel occurs on open plains, sometimes with light woodland. Fairs or small flocks arc-seen feeding on the ground, camouflaged by their colors. They pick up fallen seeds of grasses, weeds, shrubs, and trees, as well as eating berries and visiting harvested fields tr> feed on leftovers of grain. If alarmed while-feeding, the birds fly up, often settling in a dead...

Great Argus Pheasant

A solitary-living pheasant of tropic rain forests, this species feeds on leaves, nuts, shoots, seeds, and invertebrates. Its courtship display is one of the most spectacular of all birds. After trampling clear a chosen area of the forest floor, the male begins to utter loud, ringing calls. I Ic raises his tail and spreads his wings to form a vast fan, glittering with the many eye spots on the vastly enlarged secondary flight leathers. Most females thus courted will nest unaided after mating,...

Wh iteth roated Beeeater

A typical bee-cater of open country, this species has a thin, downeurved bill, long, narrow wings, and two thin tail streamers which are made up of the elongated central tail feathers. A useful identification feature is the combination of a white brow, a white throat, and a pale breast below a black neck band. This is a migrant species, alternating between two habitats. It breeds in dry, very open country with some thorn scrub, and winters in moister savanna (tropical grassland) and forest...

Common Moorhen

A cautious, sharp-voiced bird of the waterside, this species has managed to exploit most stretches of fresh water, however small, and is common and sometimes tame on village and town ponds. It walks on land and swims with nodding head, feeding on insects and small water creatures, waterweeds, seeds, and berries. NliST A neat, bowl-shaped nest made of reeds and stems, concealed in growing plants at or above water level. DISTRIBUTION Parts of North and South America, Africa. Europe, Asia as far...

Goliath Heron

This is the tallest and largest heron in the world. It occurs at the edges of large lakes and swamps, where it can wade deeper than other herons. Other habitats include mudflats, mangrove swamps, rivers, and papyrus swamps. When not breeding, birds are either solitary or live in pairs. A Goliath I leron tends to fish over the same areas daily. It often hunts among thickly crowded floating vegetation on tropical waters or wades up to its belly in open water, either stalking slowly or standing...