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Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Feeding ecology and diet

Sylvia Borin

The diets of all members of the family consist primarily of insects, other arthropods, and especially spiders. Other prey items include crustaceans, snails, and harvestmen (Opiliones). Sap (golden-crowned kinglet) and nectar (several African and Asian species, especially Prima) are occasionally consumed. Prima hodgsonii and Orthotomus sutorius are known to carry pollen attached to the feathers of the throat and forehead it and other nectar-feeding species may be important pollinators in the tropics. Some of the larger reed-warblers (including Acrocephalus arundinaceus, A. rufesecens, and A. stentoreus) occasionally take small frogs and fish. Young sylviids are fed almost exclusively arthropods, usually soft-bodied larvae and small insects, but in some cases receive berries as well. Variation in prey size and type is found among sympatric foraging guilds. During the pre-migratory period of Palearctic Sylvia warblers, individuals shift their diet from largely insects to largely berries...

Physical characteristics

Naturalists have long puzzled over the significance of the toucan's large bill. Originally, observers suggested that the bill was a weapon used to defend the nest cavity. This is not so when toucans sense danger, they come out of the cavity entrance in a hurry, threatening the enemy only out in the open, if at all. Instead, a long bill enables these rather heavy birds to pluck berries from the tips of branches without leaving a stable perch. A thin, dark-colored bill would, however, be just as useful for this purpose. Possibly the toucan's bill plays a role in pair formation and in the social life of the group. According to E. Thomas Gilliard, it acts as a signal. However, toucans can also use their bills to threaten those birds whose nests they plunder. Tyrant flycatchers and even small raptors are frightened by the giant bill, which is even more effective because of its lively colors, and they fly about helplessly while the toucans devour their young or eggs. Other birds will attack...

Megalaima haemacephala

Diet Their diet consists of figs, custard-apples, guavas, mangos, and papal fruits, along with smaller berries and many types of insects such as beetles, crickets, mantids (plural of mantis large, predatory insects), and various insect larvae. They tap and chip away tree bark in order to find invertebrates (animals without a backbone).

Purplebreasted cotinga

Males are predominantly navy blue in color, with black wings and tail, and violet on the throat and breast. Their subcutaneous and perivisceral fat often takes on the blue color of the berries they prefer. Fruit and berries are consumed, often gorging at a masting tree or bush such as mistletoe. The fruits are often plucked on the wing. Although the seeds of larger species (e.g., mistletoe) might be regurgitated, smaller seeds are often swallowed. Insects are also taken.

Pogoniulus chrysoconus

Diet Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and bright red, orange, and purple fruits, such as mistletoe berries and figs, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. They move quietly through foliage and dead leaves while pecking at prey or taking off berries and fruits. Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and fruits, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. (P. Ward Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and fruits, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. (P. Ward Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Behavior And Reproduction

Members of larger species do not breed until they are three or four years old. Males often court females by feeding them berries. Often, the pair also preens one another. Most toucans nest in tree holes. They may remove chunks of very rotten wood but do not really dig a hole like woodpeckers do. Large toucans often use natural holes. Small toucans use abandoned woodpecker holes. One pair may use the same hole year after year. Both parents incubate the white eggs for about sixteen days. They also share the work of brooding the nestlings and bringing insects. The young birds fledge, grow their flying feathers, after about fifty days, but the parents keep feeding them for another eight to ten days.

WHERE iN The World

Seeds, fruits, insects and spiders make up the cardinal's diet. In the wild, the cardinal gleans food from nearby trees and shrubs. Its wedge-shaped beak allows the bird to eat all kinds of seeds, which it holds with its grooved, upper mandible while moving the lower mandible forward to crush and husk the seed. The bird then swallows the seed's inner meat. During fall, the cardinal ascends to tops of trees and bushes in search of grapes and berries in the winter the bird picks up seeds and forages around haystacks at farms. The more domesticated cardinals collect food from town gardens as well as from backyard bird feeders, favoring sunflower seeds and cracked corn. Their full menu includes 51 kinds of insects and spiders, 33 kinds of fruit and 39 types of seeds.

Waxwings Silky Flycatchers And People

Scientists have noted that waxwing tail bands have been both yellow and orange for the last thirty years. Prior to that time, their tail bands were always yellow. The scientists believe that waxwings have been eating a lot of berries from the introduced (not native) European honeysuckle, which was introduced about then. Scientists think that the birds are being affected by pigments in the orange fruit.

Troglodytes troglodytes

Diet The winter wren is primarily an insectivore, or insect-eater, but it is occasionally known to eat spiders and rarely known to eat juniper berries. These birds feed on the forest floor and sometimes along stream banks, scurrying through leaves and brush in a mouse-like manner.

Nest Of American Magpie

These beautiful and bold maurauders are too well known to need description, suffice it to say that they are the most beautiful of North American Jays but beneath their handsome plumage beats a heart as cruel and cunning as that in any bird of prey. In the fall, winter and spring, their food consists largely of acorns, chestnuts, berries, seeds, grain, insects, lizards, etc., but during the summer months they destroy and devour a great many eggs and young of the smaller birds, their taste for which, being so great that they are known to watch a nest until the full complement of eggs is laid before making their theft. They nest

Verdin Family Remizidae

Small, very active, pale gray desert birds with short, rounded tail and tiny pointed bill. Most often heard before they are seen. Found singly or in pairs, not flocks. Build large spherical nest for roosting. FOOD Insects, fruit, berries. RANGE Desert regions of sw. N. America.

Reproductive biology

Other structures built by birds are unrelated to either brooding or sleeping, and these might be the oddest of all. Bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchidae) of Australia and New Guinea are, as a group, uniformly plain-looking birds. This has not, however, been an insurmountable problem for male bower-birds that have turned to constructing elaborately decorated bowers, or secluded retreats, in order to attract and court females through visual stimulation. Gill reports that some researchers seem to have identified an apparent relationship between the absence of showy plumage and the ornate, somewhat fussy constructions fashioned by bower males. It seems that the plainer the plumage of the species, the more exquisitely bedecked the bower. Bowers come in two types simple to complex mats of sticks built around a slender sapling, called maypole bowers, and bizarre tower structures that line the south side of a display court, called avenue bowers. The bowers, and the paths leading up to them, might be...

Conservation status

Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) male at nest with mistletoe berries. (Photo by Anthony Mercieca. Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) male at nest with mistletoe berries. (Photo by Anthony Mercieca. Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Thrushes Family Turdidae

Large-eyed, slender-billed, usually strong-legged songbirds. Most species that bear the name thrush are brown-backed with spotted breasts. Robins and bluebirds, etc., suggest their relationship through their speckle-breasted young. Thrushes are often fine singers. FOOD Insects, worms, snails, berries, fruit. RANGE Nearly worldwide.

Waxwtngs Family Bombycillidae

Pointed crest may be raised or lowered. Waxy red tips on secondaries in most individuals. Gregarious. FOOD Berries, insects. RANGE N. Hemisphere. in. (21 cm). Similar to Cedar Waxwing (yellow tip on tail), but larger and grayer, with no yellow on belly wings with strong white or white and yellow markings, warmer brown to face. Note deep rusty undertail coverts (white in Cedar Waxwing). Often travels in large nomadic flocks. Shape in flight very starlinglike. voice Zreee, rougher than thin note of Cedar Waxwing. habitat In summer, boreal forests, muskeg in winter, widespread in search of berries, especially in towns where plantings and fruiting trees attract them.

Silky Flycatchers Family ptiiogonatidae

FOOD Berries, insects. RANGE Sw. U.S. to Panama. 73 4 in. (20 cm). Both sexes are sleek, crested, with red eye. Male Glossy black with conspicuous white wing patches in flight. Female Dark gray wing patches light, not as conspicuous as male's. Eats berries but also catches insects. voice Call a soft, rising wurp and harsher churrrr. Song a weak, casual warble, wheezy and disconnected, similar species Cedar Waxwing browner than female Phainopepla, has yellow tail band, lacks pale wing patches. Northern Mockingbird (white wing patches) lacks crest and has much white in tail, habitat Desert scrub, mesquite, mistletoe (especially), oak foothills, pepper trees.

Unique Kiwi Parenting

Little spotted kiwis have a way of raising their young that is unique among kiwis. The male incubates the eggs for seventy days. Once the chicks hatch, the female helps in the rearing. Adult little spotted kiwis do not feed their young but the males and females escort their chicks into the forest to search for food, mainly berries and worms. With other species, the chicks are left on their own to find food after hatching. The little spotted kiwi is one of the most endangered of all kiwis. Human destruction of their habitat is the primary reason for their decline. Once common on the mainland of New Zealand, only about 1,000 remain off the mainland on Tiritiri Matangi Island, Red Mercury Island, Mana Island, Long Island, Hen Island, and Kapiti Island. They also survive on the Kaori Kiwi Reserve in Wellington as part of the government's captive breeding program. centipedes, spiders, cockroaches, praying mantises, snails, locusts, crickets, grasshoppers, and insect larvae. They will eat...

Turkeys Pheasants Grouse Partridges and Old World Quail Family Phasianidae

Animal Valentine Sayings

Turkeys are very large, with wattles and fanlike tail. Pheasants (introduced) have long pointed tail. Grouse are plump, chickenlike birds, without long tail. Partridges (of Old World origin) are intermediate in size between grouse and quail. Quail are the smallest. FOOD Insects, seeds, buds, berries. RANGE Nearly worldwide.

Woodpeckers and Allies Family Picidae

Poephila Acuticauda Long Tailed Finch

Chisel-billed, wood-boring birds with strong zygodactyl feet (usually two toes front, two rear), remarkably long tongue, and stiff spiny tail that acts as prop for climbing. Flight usually undulating. FOOD Tree-boring insects some species eat ants, flying insects, berries, acorns, sap. RANGE Most wooded parts of world absent in Australian region, Madagascar, most oceanic islands.

Wood Warblers Family Paruiidae

Sutton Warbler Song

Bluish gray above, streaked with black yellow below, with black spots or streaks confined to sides. Male Has blackish mask. Female Duller, lacks mask immature female browner. Persistently wags tail (as does Prairie Warbler). voice Song, loud and low-pitched for a Dendroica, resembles Northern Waterthrush's song. Typical song starts with three or four low staccato notes, continues with rapid ringing notes on higher pitch, and ends abruptly. similar species Yellow-rumped, Yellow-throated, and Magnolia warblers. habitat Groves of young jack pines 5 to 18 ft. high with ground cover of blueberries, bearberry, or sweet fern. Habitat succession and Brown-headed Cowbird are having an impact on endangered Kirtland's population.

Chickadees and Titmice Family Paridae

Acrobatic when feeding. Sexes usually alike. Often found in mixed-species flocks during nonbreeding season with other parids, kinglets, warblers, etc. FOOD Insects, seeds, acorn mast, berries at feeders, suet, sunflower seeds. RANGE Widespread in N. America, Eurasia, Africa.

Qrand Teton National Turk Wyoming

Sapsucker adults feed almost exclusively on sap or pitch, with occasional supplements of berries and cambium, but they feed their nestlings insects. Sap is acquired by drilling shallow holes, usually in rows, in cottonwoods and willows, and lapping up the gooey substance that flows from the hole with their specially adapted, long brush-tipped tongues. This behavior gives them a keystone role within the bird community the sap, which they often defend, also attracts other birds and insects. Hummingbirds, kinglets, and warblers drink the oozing sap, and other woodpeckers and warblers feed on the insects that are attracted to the sap.

Phaps Phassa Phatta Phattion

One other mistake may have given rise to what until recently was a widespread but incorrect belief the claim (fr. 347) that when a Woodpigeon lays two eggs, one is male and the other female. Other writers add accurate observations. Alexander of Myndos (fr. 19 Wellmann) describes the bird's head as bluish inclining to purple, its eyes as pale with black pupils. Pliny describes the bird's familiar call a phrase repeated three times, with a sigh at the close (HN 10.106) he notes the repeated clapping of the wings (HN 10.108) in the bird's display flight and his claim that the cock bird is domineering (HN 10.104) is presumably based on the fact that the female invites copulation by submissive posturing. Elsewhere (HN 10.105) when he alleges that newly hatched chicks are fed 'salty earth' from the parents' throats, he is probably attempting to describe 'pigeon's milk', which contains salts high in sodium. Martial (13.67) is the only ancient writer to mention the white...

OFILE Redbilled Quelea

Anhimidae Fossil

One of the quelea's more colorful relatives is the golden palm weaver (Ploceus bojeri), an elegant, sparrow-sized bird that is common on Kenya's Indian Ocean coastline. Here it feeds in small parties among the palm trees and shrubs near the shore, flitting through the foliage in search of berries and other fruit. Like the red-billed quelea, and-most other weavers, the male builds an elaborate, suspended nest from woven grasses and attracts a mate, using a spectacular display of plumage.

OFILE Northern Mockingbird

Pictures Feet Northern Mockingbird

The short, slender bill is ideal for picking up berries or insects. But the mockingbird also uses the pointed tip to peck at dogs, cats and even humans who dare invade its space. The 10 long Galapagos mockingbird (Nesomir is comparable in size to the northern mocking Galapagos mockingbird, as its name suggests, is only on the Galapagos Islands of Santa Fe, Isab Fernandina and Darwin.There, they form famil flocks, in contrast to the less gregarious norths mockingbird. Both species eat insects, seeds an berries. But the Galapagos also scavenges for other fare, including sea lion placentas and the and even chicks of other birds. Berries, seeds and insects The short, slender bill is ideal for picking up berries or insects. But the mockingbird also uses the pointed tip to peck at dogs, cats and even humans who dare invade its space.

National Monument and Curecanti National Recreation Sirea Colorado

By May they will be preparing a nest in some cavity of a tree or post. Most often they utilize old woodpecker nests, which they line with grasses, weeds, feathers, and animal hair. And within four weeks, four to eight youngsters are fledged and being taught the art of flycatching. Although insects make up the bulk of their diet, mountain bluebirds feed on other things as well earthworms, snails, and berries.

Pcky IMountain National Park Colorado

Vegetation just below treeline often consists of contorted and dwarfed subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce, often in windblown krumholtz conditions. Below these areas are the more expansive stands of fir and spruce that dominate the subalpine zone. This zone receives the greatest amount of snowfall and it lasts longest in summer, insuring plentiful moisture during the short summers. Many lakes, marshes, and meadows are associated with this zone, as are nearly pure stands of lodgepole pine on old burns, and limber pine on the more exposed slopes. Common understory plants of the subalpine zone include blueberries, grouse whortleberry, and mountain ash thinleaf alder and twinberry occur along streams.

Timpanogos Cave National 1Monument Utah

The Townsend's solitaire is, without a doubt, the most unusual member of the thrush family. First of all, solitaires are the only thrushes that nest on the ground, building their well-concealed nests among moss, under roots, or in rocky places on steep slopes, up to 12,000 feet (3,658 m) in elevation. Unlike other thrushes that migrate to the tropics for the winter, solitaires only move to lower elevations when freezing temperatures reduce their food supply of insects. Then, they may occur either alone or in scattered flocks, depending upon the availability of fruit. Some winters they are able to survive primarily on juniper and mistletoe berries, with a lesser supplement of insects. The insects are often captured in flight, flycatcher-style, instead of on the ground, as other members of the family catch them. Two kinds of hummingbirds occur along the Cave Trail. From early spring until fall, broad-tailed hummingbirds make themselves known by their high-pitched squeaks and aerial...

Capulin Volcano National 1Monument New Mexico

I watched a pair of birds feeding on the ground under a GambePs oak. They were clearing away the dead leaves and other debris by jumping backward, throwing the loose materials behind them in their search for insects, spiders, and seeds. They would then jump forward and peck at the various food items that had been uncovered. Once berries ripen in late summer, they take advantage of that readily available food source, as well. Vegetation near the base of the cone represents the short grass prairie of the high plains. Predominant plant species include blue and sideoats gramas, big and little bluestems, and various species of sage. The cone itself is covered with a high density of pinyon pines and oneseed junipers on the north, east, and southern exposures. The western slope is composed of scattered pinyons and junipers with occasional stands of Gambel's oaks, mountain mahoganies, skunkbushes, currents, gooseberries, and thimbleberries. A small stand of ponderosa pines occurs along the...

Food hunting 1

The belted kingfisher hunts from a perch when the water surface is calm. The bird eats mainly small fish, either by diving from its perch and seizing the fish with its powerful bill or by hovering about 20' above the water and making a straight or spiral dive. From the air, the bird swoops close to the water's surface and dips down to catch a meal, closing its eyes at the last instant. Most aquatic prey is caught about 2' below the water's surface the bird spreads its wings underwater to break the dive. No matter which method the kingfisher chooses, it takes the captured fish back to its perch, beats it against a hard object, such as post or branch, and then tosses it into the air, swallowing the morsel head first. The belted kingfisher also eats insects, crayfish, clams, oysters, frogs, small snakes, mussels, turtles, grasshoppers, moths, beetles, young birds, mice, berries and bullfrog tadpoles. While fish are swallowed whole, invertebrates are often torn into pieces after being...

Impeyan Monal

The magical, iridescent colors of this species seem poorly suited to its ungainly shape. It is a short-tailed pheasant with stout legs and a large, eaglelike bill. At a distance, the male's velvet-black breast is the most conspicuous feature. This is a mountain species, living in open forest and among stands of rhododendron at altitudes of some 8.000-16,000 ft (2,500-5,000 ni). Singly or in small groups of three or four, the birds root around, often in snow-covered soil. They feed on grass and flower seeds, tubers, bulbs, berries, and insects.

Common Pheasant

Although large and colorful, this is a secretive bird, creeping softly through shrubby copses, farmland, and marshes. In pairs during the breeding season and otherwise in small flocks, birds feed on weed seeds, grain, berries, earthworms, and insects. NliST A hollow formed by the birds, lined with grass, and situated underneath or within dense, low vegetation. DISTRIBUTION Europe, and in areas through

Common Curlew

This large, streaky-brown shorebird has a dignified stride and a long, down-curved bill. Although it lacks vivid markings, its courlee call and graceful, bubbling song draw attention to the species. Curlews are also noticeable when performing their territorial display flights. The breeding habitat is upland moorland, grassland, and peat bog. Here the birds feed on insects and other invertebrates, taken from the ground with the long bill. Small berries are also eaten. Having lived in pairs during the spring, curlews form Hocks when they migrate to the coast. They spend the winter on seashores and estuaries, where they probe deeply into mud or sand for worms, tiny crabs, and mollusks.

Mew Gull

Seen alongside other gulls, this species has a relatively fine bill, giving the head a neat, rounded look. The Mew Gull often comes inland and often feeds on the ground. Typical food items are worms, insects, mice, berries, and fallen grain on farmland. It also forages in shallow waters. This species nests in colonies, on'thc coast or inland, sometimes on moors or grassland away from water. NEST A natural hollow in the ground, lined with dried grass and other plant materials. DISTRIBUTION Breeds in much of Eurasia. N. Africa, VV. and N. North America. Northern

Common Wood Pigeon

Originally a woodland bird, this pigeon has learned to take advantage of gardens and farmland. It frequently advertises its presence from within the trees with a deep, throaty, cooing call. When seen in the open, it can be identified by its white wing patches and white neck patches. Flight is usually swift and direct and, in its display, the bird mounts steeply, often with a series of loud wing claps, then glides downward. Frightened Hocks, too, make noisy wingbeats. The species is highly sociable and forms flocks when not breeding. Birds fcetl mainly on seeds, but they also eat berries, buds, and leaves. The short legs assist in clambering after acorns.

New Zealand Pigeon

I lie dull colors of this stout fruit-pigeon are broken up by sparkling, green and purple sheens. These help provide camouflage among foliage, but the bird can often be detected by the loud flapping of its wings as it steadies itself while clambering about in search of fruit. This species lives in forests, sometimes venturing into nearby gardens and farmland with trees. The diet includes fruit, berries, buds, flowers, and leaves from trees and shrubs. Birds also come dow n to the ground to feed from small plants. They arc seen in pairs or small parties. The male's display flight consists of a rapid ascent, followed by a downward glide with spread wings and tail.

OFILE Golden Oriole

Breeding Season

The oriole's sharp, stout bill easily plucks insects or berries, but it can also tear the flesh of small vertebrates. The African golden oriole (Oriolus auratus) is slightly smaller than the golden oriole. Both species are remarkably similar in coloration, but the African golden oriole has golden-yellow wing feathers mixed with the black and a larger black eye streak than the golden oriole. When the golden oriole migrates south for the winter both birds can be seen in some of the same regions of Africa.The African golden oriole feeds in trees, while the golden oriole will occasionally be seen searching the ground for insects or fallen berries. The oriole's sharp, stout bill easily plucks insects or berries, but it can also tear the flesh of small vertebrates. vertebrates, fruits and berries

Alexandras Parrot

1 he slender build of this parrot, and the long, narrow wings and tapering tail, are probably adaptations to its nomadic life in the deserts of Australia. Its flight is undulating, with irregular wingbeats, as it moves between the scattered trees of its arid habitat or follows the lines of eucalyptus trees that mark the presence of a creek. It is also seen in acacia scrub. Most of the day is spent at ground level, searching for the small seeds of grasses and other plants that form its diet. Alexandra's Parrot also eats tree blossoms and mistletoe berries. A quiet bird, it has a soft twitter of alarm and a With its bright plumage in the primary colors, and scalclikc black markings on the back, this parrot is a well known inhabitant of the farmland and gardens within its range. Pairs or small groups search for a variety of food, including fruit, blossoms, nectar from trees, berries from shrubs, and seeds from the ground. Because it takes fruit from orchards, it is considered an...

Rosethroated becard

Sits nearly motionless on a branch, hidden among leaves, watching for insects from the middle levels of clearings or forest edges. Sallies forth to snag insects from foliage or in flight and returns to same perch. Diet consists of insects, their larvae, and sometimes wild fruits and berries.

Banded cotinga

Weight for this genus is around 2.5-2.8 oz (70-80 g). This species is starling-sized. Males are predominantly ultramarine-blue coloration, with black on the wings and tail, and separate patches of violet on the throat and breast. Their subcutaneous and perivisceral fat often takes on the blue color of the berries they prefer. Fruit and berries are consumed, often gorging at a masting tree or bush such as mistletoe. The fruits are often plucked on the wing. Although the seeds of larger species (e.g., mistletoe) might be regurgitated, smaller seeds are often swallowed. Insects are also taken.

Turquoise cotinga

Weight for this genus is around 2.5-2.8 oz (70-80 g). This species is starling-sized. Males are predominantly ultramarine-blue in color, with black on the wings and tail, and separate patches of violet on the throat and breast. Their subcutaneous and perivisceral fat often takes on the blue color of the berries they prefer. Fruit and berries are consumed, often gorging at a masting tree or bush such as mistletoe. The fruits are often plucked on

Picoides borealis

Diet Red-cockaded woodpeckers eat ants, beetles, caterpillars, roaches, wood-boring insects, and spiders found on tree surfaces, especially pine trees, and by scaling back loose bark. They eat earworms off of corn in the summer, along with berries and nuts. Males forage on limbs and trunk of pines above the lowest branches. Females forage on trunk below the lowest branch.


L Inusual in being a fruit-cater, this woodpecker occurs in forest, open woodland, and even in places where forests have been cleared, leaving only a few scattered trees. Although observations in the wild have been limited, the bird is fairly common within its range and is thought to be very sociable. It forages in the trees in small parties, searching for fruit, staying mainly in the branches, sometimes feeding on berries from tall herbaceous plants. The behavior of aviary-kept specimens suggests that Yellow-fronted Woodpeckers also eat insects, and their liking for nectar-solution indicates that wild birds may probe flowers for nectar.


A slender, tree-dwelling bird of thinly spaced woodland, this species has an undulating style of (light and a habit of shuffling its wings just after alighting, 'file cuckoo in its name refers to the long, slender body shape. The shrike refers to its style of feeding, taking large insects and their larvae from foliage or the ground, and sometimes eating berries. The call is either a grating kaark or a gentler, whistling sound.

Southern White

An unusually sociable shrike, this species is usually seen in pairs or small parties. It perches conspicuously on trip, or 011 the outer branches of trees in woodlands or savanna (tropical or subtropical grassland). I,ike other shrikes it forages for insects and other prey by dropping from a perch to the ground, as well as feeding on berries. Its flight is strong and direct, with shallow, quick wingbcats.

Hypocolius ampelinus

Diet Gray hypocoliuses eat mostly fruit, but sometimes insects as well. They rarely go to the ground, instead looking through foliage, leaves, for food. They are known for their careful and deliberate feeding behavior, using their long tails as a lever to balance as they extend their bodies to reach fruit and berries. When eating fruit, the bird chews the pulp and spits out pits, larger seeds, and skin.

Whiskered Yuiiina

I he combination of a jaunty, pointed crest and a mustache identifies this babbler, which breeds in mountain forests and winters in the trees in foothills and lowlands. It nearly always occurs in small groups, that often join mixed flocks of babblers. The diet consists of insects, spiders, berries, and nectar taken from flowering trees.


Diet mainly fruit and berries, some insects often caught on the wing. Phainopepla is closely associated with mistletoe, a parasitic plant that grows on many desert trees especially mesquite (Prosopis spp.). Phainopeplas have a specialized digestive system for consuming mistletoe berries. In the gizzard they remove the seed and pulp from the seed coat of the berries they then digest the pulp and defecate the seeds and seed coat separately, usually on the branch of the tree where the bird was perched. The seeds sprout in the tree, continuing their parasitic lifestyle, having been dispersed by the bird.

Melospiza melodia

Diet Song sparrows feed mostly on insects (and their larvae LARvee ) and other invertebrates in the summer, but switch to mostly seeds in the winter. They also eat grains, berries, and some fruits, mostly from the ground or by picking food off of trees, bushes, and other vegetation. Coastal species catch small mollusks and crustaceans (hard-shelled creatures).


(1) Alexander's bird is most likely to have been a Black-bellied Sandgrouse (Pterocles orientalis) 33-35 cm, a bird with a wide range around the Mediterranean (Iberian peninsula, North Africa, Turkey, Cyprus). This bird is a seed-eater with a liking for berries, its call is a low-pitched gargle, and the female's back and breast have very dark spots and marks on a claycoloured base.

Where do you live

Are you afraid that the birds may cat up your cherries or other fruit Starlings eat few cherries. The young starlings will have already left the nest before midsummer, at which time they will accompany their parents for a while. The starlings from your nest boxes will not eat many of your berries, but wandering starlings will. Thrushes are the main consumers of berries but since they arc attractive birds and such fine songsters in the breeding season this is well worth tolerating. Neither flycatchers nor tits cat berries, feasting instead on the harmful insects on berry bushes and fruit trees, thus giving you healthier fruit and berries.

Cotinga cayana

Spangled cotingas prefer fruit and berries, and often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family. (Illustration by Emily Damstra. Reproduced by permission.) Spangled cotingas prefer fruit and berries, and often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family. (Illustration by Emily Damstra. Reproduced by permission.) Diet Like all cotingas, these birds prefer fruit and berries. They often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family.


A strong-living parrot of arid country, this species looks like a cockatoo but is more agile and active in its behavior. The Cockatiel occurs on open plains, sometimes with light woodland. Fairs or small flocks arc-seen feeding on the ground, camouflaged by their colors. They pick up fallen seeds of grasses, weeds, shrubs, and trees, as well as eating berries and visiting harvested fields tr feed on leftovers of grain. If alarmed while-feeding, the birds fly up, often settling in a dead tree, where they make themselves inconspicuous by perching lengthwise on larger branches. I- light is fast and direct, with strong, regular w ingbeats, in which the large, white wing patches are conspicuous. Birds maintain contact during (light with a loud, warbled, double note. In some parts of its range the Cockatiel leads a nomadic life, traveling about in any direction in search of areas where food is available. Other populations migrate-between summer and winter ranges. NEST a hollow ill a tree,...

Lonchura punctulata

Diet The birds eat grass seeds, especially rice, from off of the ground and on live plants. They also eat small berries. Sometimes, they eat dead animals along roadsides. When human trash dumps are available, they are seen removing scraps of food, such as bread, from the area.

Pitangus sulphuratus

Diet Great kiskadees eat insects, but also will eat small fish, tadpoles, lizards, and mice. They will dive into the water after food, which they bring to their perch and beat against a branch until it is dead before tearing it apart. If they cannot find their preferred food, great kiskadees will eat fruits and berries.

Papuan Lorikeet

Living in tropical forests on mountainsides, this colorful parrot feeds in the trees on the flowers of epiphytes (independent plants that grow on the branches). It drinks the nectar and also eats pollen and the blossoms of the epiphytes, as well as taking berries and seeds. Its long, curving tail is an encumbrance as it hops jerkily through the twigs. Papuan Lorikeets occur in pairs or small parties and are seen in the upper branches of the forest. Their flight is direct hut not fast, with the tail trailing behind. Birds fly among the branches, rather than over the top of the canopy. Their calls are soft and subdued.

Brown thrasher

Musical Phrase

Food is very varied many invertebrates including caterpillars, spiders, grasshoppers, and crayfish, also small frogs, snakes, and lizards vegetable matter, especially berries, but also acorns, corn etc. Feeds mostly on the ground, probing into soft soil, sweeping aside leaf litter with sideways movements of the bill.

Zion National

One day in mid-September, the meadows were filled with mountain bluebirds, flycatching over the wilted flowers. Their bright blue plumage matched the deep blue sky. Dark-eyed juncos moved from one patch of dried flowers to another, searching for seeds. A half-dozen Brewer's blackbirds, en route to more southern climes, passed overhead. A pair of omnipresent common ravens called to one another near the rim. At the far edge was a pair of blue grouse, feeding on the juicy fruits of gooseberries.

Wonga Pigeon

A secretive bird in spite of its size and powerful build, the Wonga Pigeon lives on the ground in deciduous forest and rain forest. Here, it ean often be detected by its penetrating call note. This sound is repeated continuously until the bird senses an approach, when it becomes silent. It normally avoids danger by walking, often covering considerable distances on the forest floor. Otherwise, it may take flight for a short distance, then watch from a perch. Wonga Pigeons are seen singly or in pairs or in larger numbers at a good food source. They eat fallen fruits, berries, and seeds.


This tanager lives high in trees at the forest edge, and in scattered trees in clearings. It feeds on berries. A small, stubby-billed tanager that is encountered in pairs and small groups, this species stays in the upper levels of trees, where it is sluggish and easily overlooked. It feeds mainly on mistletoe berries, also taking other fruits and insects.

Plumthroated cotinga

This species is starling-sized, and the males are predominantly blue in color, with a violet colored throat. Their subcutaneous and perivisceral fat often takes on the blue color of the berries they prefer. Fruit and berries are consumed, often gorging at a masting tree or bush such as mistletoe. The fruits are often plucked on the wing. Although the seeds of larger species (e.g., mistletoe) might be regurgitated, smaller seeds are often swallowed. Insects are also taken.

Auriparus flaviceps

Diet Verdins eat invertebrates (such as insects and their larvae and eggs, and spiders), seeds, and fruits such as wild berries. Much of their water is obtained through the eating of fruits and insects. They actively forage for food among twigs, leaves, and buds, sometimes hanging upside down while clinging to twigs and leaves.

Chlamydera maculata

Behavior and reproduction Spotted bowerbirds build avenue bowers beneath low bushes or shrubs. The nests are made from grasses and are often 3,300 to 6,600 feet (1,000 to 2,000 meters) apart from each other. The walls are about 7.8 to 19.7 inches (20 to 50 centimeters) high. Up to 1,000 or more decorations such as berries, seedpods, pebbles and stones, bones, snail shells, and glass are attached to the bowers. Adult males occasionally make loud, harsh churrings and other notes (including vocal mimicry) in order to make themselves known.

Lanai hookbill

Individual shot by Munro in 1913 had been feeding on fruit of the opuhe (Urera sandwichensis), Munro speculated it also fed on the akoko (Euphorbia lorifolia). Dissection of the stomach found native berries, but hooked bill and relatively weak jaw musculature suggest it may have fed mostly on land snails.

Longtailed Jaeger

I his small, lightly built seabird has long, narrow wings and, when fully grown, long central tail feathers. It flies with great agility, soaring upward, or hovering over the water looking for food. It picks fish from the sea surface, follows boats for discarded fish, and attacks gulls or terns to make them disgorge fish that they have caught and swallowed. On its Arctic breeding grounds, it hunts lemmings and other small animals, as well as eating berries.