Pycnonotus goiaver Scopoli, 1786. Forms superspecies with P. barbatus, P. nigricans, P. capensis, P. leucotis, P. leucogenys and possibly P. cafer, P. aurigaster.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
French: Bulbul d'Arabie; German: Gelbsteifibulbul; Spanish: Bulbul Capirotado;.
7.4 in (19 cm), 1.2-1.6 oz (35-46 g). Black head with white eye-ring. Brownish underparts, white in center of belly. Conspicuous yellow undertail (vent). Sexes alike. Juvenile resembles adult, but head brown.
Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, western Syria, Jordan, Sinai and Arabian peninsulas.
Open forest, cultivated gardens, orchards, plantations—anywhere with trees, bushes or scrub; will nest quite close to humans.
Thought to spend time in "duo" with a sibling of same or different sex. Gregarious where food is abundant, hundreds may
flock together outside of breeding season. Active and noisy, squabbling common. Calls various chirping, bubbling, whistling, scolding, occasional mimic of other birds. Nonmi-gratory.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Mainly feeds on fleshy fruits, also insects; flying ants, bees, wasps, mole-crickets, worms, and snails.
Monogamous, pairs remain together all year, often for several years. Two to three broods, nests in bushes or low palms. Two to four subelliptical light violet to pink eggs, with violet or red-brown and gray speckles. Incubation 14 days, fledge 13-15 days.
Not threatened. Fairly common throughout range, largest numbers in Israel where range is expanding (few hundred thousand pairs).
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦
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