Yellowvented bulbul

Pycnonotus goiaver

TAXONOMY

Pycnonotus goiaver Scopoli, 1786. Forms superspecies with P. barbatus, P. nigricans, P. capensis, P. leucotis, P. leucogenys and possibly P. cafer, P. aurigaster.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Bulbul d'Arabie; German: Gelbsteifibulbul; Spanish: Bulbul Capirotado;.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

7.4 in (19 cm), 1.2-1.6 oz (35-46 g). Black head with white eye-ring. Brownish underparts, white in center of belly. Conspicuous yellow undertail (vent). Sexes alike. Juvenile resembles adult, but head brown.

DISTRIBUTION

Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, western Syria, Jordan, Sinai and Arabian peninsulas.

HABITAT

Open forest, cultivated gardens, orchards, plantations—anywhere with trees, bushes or scrub; will nest quite close to humans.

BEHAVIOR

Thought to spend time in "duo" with a sibling of same or different sex. Gregarious where food is abundant, hundreds may

flock together outside of breeding season. Active and noisy, squabbling common. Calls various chirping, bubbling, whistling, scolding, occasional mimic of other birds. Nonmi-gratory.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Mainly feeds on fleshy fruits, also insects; flying ants, bees, wasps, mole-crickets, worms, and snails.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Monogamous, pairs remain together all year, often for several years. Two to three broods, nests in bushes or low palms. Two to four subelliptical light violet to pink eggs, with violet or red-brown and gray speckles. Incubation 14 days, fledge 13-15 days.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. Fairly common throughout range, largest numbers in Israel where range is expanding (few hundred thousand pairs).

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

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