Visayan tarictic hornbill

Penelopides panini

SUBFAMILY

Bucerotinae

TAXONOMY

Buceros panini Boddaert, 1783, Panay, Philippines. Two subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Visayan Hornbill, Panay tarictic hornbill, rufous-tailed hornbill; French: Calao tarictic; German: Visayan-Tarik-tikhornvogel; Spanish: Calao Chico de Panay.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

17.7 in (45 cm); weights unrecorded. Small in size with prominently ridged bill. Black with yellowish head and rufous tail and underparts; female all black with rufous tail.

DISTRIBUTION

Philippine islands of Masbate, Panay, Sicogon, Pan de Azucar, Guimaras, Negros, and Ticao.

HABITAT

Prefers primary rainforest but will visit fruiting trees in secondary habitat up to 4,900 ft (1,500 m) altitude.

BEHAVIOR

Territorial, living in family groups of two to three and, rarely, 12 birds.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Omnivorous. Forages mid-canopy and at forest edge.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Cooperative breeder; lays two to three eggs March through April; incubation not recorded but nesting cycle c. 95 days. Female molts while breeding and exits cavity with eldest fledgling.

CONSERVATION STATUS

One of the most Endangered hornbills due to habitat loss and excessive hunting.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS Hunted for food. ♦

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