Ptiliogonys townsendi Audubon, 1838, Oregon. OTHER COMMON NAMES
French: Solitaire de Townsend; German: Bergklarino; Spanish: Clarín Norteño.
7.9-8.7 in (20-22 cm); 1.1-1.2 oz (30-35 g). Adults are gray overall; black tails with white outer feathers that show during flight; buff wing patches near the base of blackish flight feathers; white eye rings. Juveniles are brownish gray overall marked with buff and white scalloping on upperparts and un-derparts.
North America from Alaska south to Mexico, east to southeast Wyoming, central Arizona, western South Dakota, and Montana.
Open stands of conifers, edges of extensive conifer forest, often near streams and with little or no undergrowth; also high mountain slopes, cliffs, and ravines up to and above the tree line.
Often conspicuous; solitary or in loose parties, typically perched upright on exposed perch on tree or post, flying up to catch prey or dropping to the ground to forage.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Insects, including moths, beetles, caterpillars, ants, bees, and wasps; also eats a wide range of berries.
Breeds May-July, nest of bark, grass, and roots built by female in bush or shrub or on the ground, often near a stream; three to four eggs incubated for 11-14 days, chicks fledge after 10-12 days; two broods.
Not threatened, though uncommon in much of range.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦
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