Species accounts

Campo miner

Geobates poecilopterus

SUBFAMILY

Furnariinae

TAXONOMY

Geobates poecilopterus Wied, 1830. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Geositte des campos; German: Camposerdhacker; Spanish: Caminera de Campo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 5 in (12.5 cm). Bill is short, slightly downcurved, and pointed. The tail is short. The sexes are similar. The overall coloration is light brown, with a lighter buff-brown belly, a whitish throat, and a light stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in interior regions of south-central Brazil and northeastern Bolivia.

HABITAT

Inhabits grassy glades within tropical forest and open grassland, but needs at least a few scattered trees. Appears to favor

Geobates poecilopterus I Resident areas that have recently been burned. Generally occurs at 1,600-3,950 ft (500-1,200 m).

BEHAVIOR

Non-migratory. Pairs of breeding birds defend a territory. The song is usually given during a hovering display flight, and is a simple, repeated series of buzzy notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for insects on the ground. Sometimes perches in shrubs or trees.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Builds an oven-shaped nest of clay. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Coastal miner

Geositta peruviana

SUBFAMILY

Furnariinae

TAXONOMY

Geositta peruviana Lafresnaye, 1847. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Geositte du Peerou; German: Kustenerdhacker; Spanish: Caminera de la Costa.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 5.5 in (14 cm). Bill is short, slightly downcurved, and pointed. The sexes are similar. The tail is moderately short, and overall coloration is light gray-brown, with a whitish belly and throat, and a light stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in coastal regions of western Peru. HABITAT

Occurs in open, arid, often-sandy, desert-like barrens of the Pacific coast. Habitat ranges from almost non-vegetated to having scattered shrubs. Occurs as high as about 1,300 ft (400 m).

BEHAVIOR

A non-migratory species. Usually occurs singly or in pairs. Defends a breeding territory. The song is given by the male during a hovering display flight and is a lengthy, musical twittering.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages actively by running and hopping on the ground, seeking its food of insects and other small invertebrates. Sometimes perches in low shrubs or on walls of buildings.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Builds an oven-shaped nest out of clay. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Scale-throated earthcreeper

Upucerthia dumetaria

SUBFAMILY

Furnariinae

TAXONOMY

Upucerthia dumetaria Geoffroy Saint-Hilarie, 1832. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Upucerthie des buissons; German: Schuppenkehl-Erd-hacker; Spanish: Bandurrita Común.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 8.5 in (21.5 cm). Bill is long, strongly downcurved, and pointed. The tail is long. The sexes are similar. Overall coloration is dull gray-brown, with a whitish belly, pale tips of the tail-feathers, a scaly white-on-brown pattern on the throat, and a light stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in the Andean region of western Bolivia, extreme southern Peru, Chile, and southern and western Argentina through southern Patagonia.

HABITAT

Occurs in montane and alpine slopes and plains, with cover ranging from shrubby to more-open grasslands. Occurs as high as about 12,800 ft (3,900 m).

BEHAVIOR

A non-migratory species. Usually occurs singly or in pairs. Defends a breeding territory. Tends to skulk among cover on the ground or in dense near-ground cover. Often cocks its long tail erect. The song is a musical trilling.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages actively by running and hopping on the ground, seeking its prey of insects and other small invertebrates.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Builds a nest in a tunnel dug into an earthen bank. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A locally abundant species, particularly in southern parts of its range.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Bolivian earthcreeper

Ochetorhynchus harterti

SUBFAMILY

Furnariinae

TAXONOMY

Ochetorhynchus harterti Berlepsch, 1892. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Upucerthie de Bolivie; German: Braunkappen-Erdhacker; Spanish: Bandurrita Boliviana.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 6 in (17 cm). Bill is rather long, somewhat downcurved, and pointed. The tail is long. The sexes are similar. Overall coloration is dull brown on the back, with a lighter belly, white throat, and a tan stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

A local (or endemic) species of the Andean region of southern Bolivia.

HABITAT

Occurs in foothills and lower slopes of Andean valleys within its limited range. Occurs near edges of deciduous woods and in dry shrubby habitats. Often occurs in microhabitats with a high density of terrestrial bromeliads. Occurs within an altitudinal range of 4,700-9,700 ft (1,430-2,960 m).

BEHAVIOR

A non-migratory species. Usually occurs singly or in pairs. Defends a breeding territory. Tends to skulk among cover on the ground or in dense near-ground cover. Often cocks its long tail erect. The song is a series of loud, piercing, steady or descending notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages in low shrubs and trees and on the ground for insects and other small invertebrates.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

The nest has not yet been observed, but a closely related species builds a nest of twigs within a natural tree-hollow or in a clump of rocks, or sometimes in an 'oven' abandoned by another species of ovenbird. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

An endemic and rather uncommon species, but not considered at risk.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Band-tailed earthcreeper

Eremobius phoenicurus

SUBFAMILY

Furnariinae

TAXONOMY

Eremobius phoenicurus Gould, 1839. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Annumbi rougequeue; German: Dornschlupfer; Spanish: Bandurrita Turca.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 7 in (18 cm). Bill is rather long, slightly downcurved, and pointed. The tail is long. The sexes are similar. Overall coloration is dull olive-brown on the back, with a lighter brown-streaked belly, white throat, rufous on the margins of an otherwise blackish tail, and a whitish stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in southeastern Argentina and barely into extreme southern Chile.

HABITAT

Inhabits cool, sparsely shrubby, level grasslands of the prairie (steppe) of Patagonia. Occurs as high as about 3,900 ft (1,200 m).

BEHAVIOR

Non-migratory. Usually occurs singly or in pairs. Defends a breeding territory. A largely terrestrial bird that runs over the ground, and only sometimes perches in shrubs. Often cocks its long tail erect. The song is a short, rapid trill.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for insects and other small invertebrates on the ground, often by probing into soft earth with its bill.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Builds a nest of twigs in a low shrub. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

An uncommon species, but not considered at risk.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Bar-winged cinclodes

Cinclodes fuscus

SUBFAMILY

Furnariinae

TAXONOMY

Cinclodes fuscus Vieillot, 1818. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Cinclode brun; German: Binden-Uferwipper; Spanish: Ticotico de Cuello Blanco.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 7 in (17-17.5 cm). Bill is rather short, almost straight, and pointed. The tail is of medium length. The sexes are similar. The overall coloration is dull brown on the back, with a tan belly, white throat finely barred with brown, conspicuous whitish or tan wing-stripes visible in flight, and a white stripe over the eye. There is significant geographic variation in the plumage coloration of this widespread species.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in isolated pockets of the Andean region from southern Venezuela through Colombia, and more continuously through Ecuador, Peru, western Bolivia, and Chile and western Argentina throughout Patagonia.

HABITAT

Inhabits open grasslands at higher altitudes of the mountains and at lower levels in Patagonia. Usually occurs in the vicinity of surface water, such as streams, rivers, ponds, or lakes. Occurs as high as about 16,400 ft (5,000 m).

BEHAVIOR

Mostly a non-migratory species, although Patagonian populations may migrate northward to spend their winter in a lower latitude. Usually occurs singly or in pairs. Defends a breeding territory. A largely terrestrial bird that runs and hops over the ground, and also perches in shrubs. The song is a short, rapid trill, often given in flight.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for insects and other small invertebrates on the ground, often by probing into soft earth with its bill.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Builds a nest in a burrow that it excavates itself, or in a natural cavity in an earthen bank or rock pile. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and abundant species within its habitat.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Rufous hornero

Furnarius rufus

SUBFAMILY

Furnariinae

TAXONOMY

Furnarius rufus J.F. Gmelin, 1788. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Rufous ovenbird; French: Fournier roux; German: Rosttopfer; Spanish: Hornero Común.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is 7-8 in (18-20 cm). Bill is rather short, almost straight, and pointed. The tail is of medium length. The sexes are similar. The overall coloration is brown on the back, with a tan belly, white throat, somewhat rufous tail, and a tan stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

A widespread species, occurring in Bolivia, much of southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and northern and central Argentina.

HABITAT

Inhabits a wide variety of arid and other open habitats. Often occurs in the vicinity of surface water, such as streams, rivers, ponds, or lakes. Commonly occurs in the vicinity of human habitation and along roads. Mostly occurs as high as about 8,200 ft (2,500 m), but can be as high as 12,150 ft (3,500 m).

BEHAVIOR

Non-migratory. Usually occurs singly or in pairs. Defends a breeding territory. A largely terrestrial bird that boldly runs and hops over the ground, and also perches in exposed shrubs. The song is a loud, fast, raucous series of notes, often performed as a duet by a mated pair of birds.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for insects and other small invertebrates on the ground, among leaf litter, and by probing into soft earth with its bill.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a large nesting structure of thousands of billfuls of moist mud, used to make a spherical, oven-like structure perched on a natural stump, fencepost, or telephone pole. The internal nest cavity is accessed through a side-hole entrance. The nesting structure is used once and then abandoned, although disused nests may persist for several years and are often used by other species. If posts are of limited supply, a new nest may be constructed on top of an old one. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and abundant species within its habitat.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

National bird of Argentina, largely in popular recognition of its bold and jaunty demeanor, and so it is of cultural significance. ♦

Des Murs's wiretail

Sylviorthorhynchus desmursii

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Sylviorthorhynchus desmursii Des Murs, 1847. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe de Des Murs; German: Sechsfedernschlüpfer; Spanish: Colilarga Común.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is 7.5-9 in (19-23 cm). The rather long bill is about the same length as the head, straight, and sharply pointed. The body is small and the tail is extremely long and thin; it is about twice the length of the main part of the body. Most of this lengthy tail is formed of the elongated central pair of tail-feathers (or retrices), with the lateral pair of retrices being about half as long as the central ones. The sexes are similar. The overall coloration is rufous-brown on the back, with a tan belly, a reddish crown of the head, and a light-tan stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in southern and central Chile and adjacent western Argentina.

HABITAT

Inhabits the dense undergrowth vegetation of primary temperate forest dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus species), as well as mature secondary woodland containing dense stands of the bamboo Chusquea. Occurs as high as about 3,300 ft (1,000 m).

BEHAVIOR

Non-migratory. Usually occurs singly or in pairs. Defends a breeding territory. It is a skulking, largely terrestrial bird. The song is a loud series of notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for insects and other small invertebrates, mostly within foliage.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a ball-shaped, enclosed nest of grasses and other fibers, with a side-hole entrance. The nest is placed close to the ground surface. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

Thorn-tailed rayadito

Aphrastura spinicauda

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Aphrastura spinicauda J.F. Gmelin, 1789. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe rayadito; German: Stachelschwanzschlüpfer; Spanish: Rayadito Común.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 5.5 in (14-14.5 cm). Bill is short, straight, and sharply pointed. The body is small and the tail is long and tipped with sharp spines emanating from the tips of the feathers. The sexes are similar. The back is colored with lengthwise stripes of alternating dark-brown and tan, the tail is bright rufous, the throat and belly are white, the wings have two buff-colored bands, and there is a tan stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in southern and central Chile and adjacent western Argentina. Occurs on many coastal islands, and rarely on the Falkland Islands.

HABITAT

Inhabits a variety of forests and wooded habitats, including primary temperate forest dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus species), mature and younger secondary woodland, and low-

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A locally abundant species within its habitat.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

shrub and tussock-grass scrub. Mostly occurs as high as about 3,950 ft (1,200 m), and sometimes up to 6,550 ft (2,000 m).

BEHAVIOR

A non-migratory species. Occurs as pairs during the breeding season, and in small groups of up to 15 individuals during the winter. May also occur in mixed-species foraging flocks during the non-breeding season. An active and bold species, often holding the tail cocked erect. The song is an extended, buzzy trill.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages energetically for insects and other small invertebrates within foliage at all levels of the forest canopy.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a nest of grasses and other fibers within a tree-hole or in a space behind loose bark. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. An abundant species within its habitat.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Striolated tit-spinetail

Leptasthenura striolata

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Leptasthenura striolata Pelzeln, 1856. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe striole; German: Strichelschlüpfer; Spanish: Coludito Estriado.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 6.5 in (16-16.5 cm). Bill is short, straight, and sharply pointed. The body is small and slender, and the tail is long and tipped with two sharp spines emerging from the tips of the central pair of tail-feathers. The sexes are similar. The back is colored brown with buffy streaks, the tail is brown with rufous outer feathers, the wings are uniformly brown, the throat and belly are reddish brown with brown speckles, the crown of the head is black with rufous streaks, and there is a buffy-white stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

A locally distributed species of southeastern Brazil. HABITAT

Inhabits a variety of forested and shrubby habitats, and well-vegetated gardens. Mostly occurs at 1,650-3,600 ft (5001,100 m).

BEHAVIOR

Non-migratory. Occurs as pairs during the breeding season, or in small groups. Sometimes joins mixed-species foraging flocks. The song is a high-pitched, descending series of notes and trills.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages energetically for insects and other small invertebrates within the shrub and tree canopy, often hanging upside-down while inspecting foliage, twigs, and flowers for prey.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a nest in a cavity in a tree, rock pile, wall, or earthen bank, or in an abandoned oven-nest of another species of ovenbird. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. An endemic species, abundant within its local habitat.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Wren-like rushbird

Phleocryptes melanops

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Phleocryptes melanops Vieillot, 1817. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe troglodyte; German: Rohrschlüpfer; Spanish: Junquero Trabajador.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 5.5 in (13.5-14.5 cm). Bill is short, slightly downcurved, and pointed. The body is small and chunky, and the

tail is moderately short and tipped with two short spines emerging from the tips of the central pair of tail-feathers. The sexes are similar. The back is colored brown with whitish streaks, the tail is brown, the wings are brown with rufous patches, the throat and belly are whitish bordered with buff, the crown of the head is dark brown, and there is a buff-white stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs widely in southern South America, including western Peru, western Bolivia, Chile, southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina.

HABITAT

Inhabits reedbeds of marshes and lake margins, including both fresh and brackish waterbodies. Occurs as high as about 14,100 ft (4,300 m).

BEHAVIOR

Northern populations are non-migratory, but southern ones may migrate to spend the winter in northern parts of the species range. Occurs as pairs during the breeding season. The song is a quiet series of ticking notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for insects and other small invertebrates on muddy ground, among reedy vegetation, among floating plants, and even in shallow water.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a spherical nest attached to reeds, with a side entrance near the top. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and locally abundant species within its reedy habitat.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Pale-breasted spinetail

Synallaxis albescens

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Synallaxis albescens Temminck, 1823. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe albane; German: Temminckschlupfer; Spanish: Pijui de Cola Parda.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 6.5 in (16-16.5 cm). Bill is short, straight, and pointed. The body is small and slender, and the tail is long and indistinctly tipped with two short spines. The sexes are similar. The back and tail are colored olive-brown, the wings are olive-brown with bright rufous patches, the cheeks, throat, and belly are whitish, the crown of the head is rufous, and there is a whitish stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs widely from southern Central America through much of South America. It occurs in Costa Rica, Panama, northern Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, most of Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, eastern Peru, Uruguay, and northern and central Argentina.

HABITAT

Occurs in open savannahs and grassy meadows with scattered trees and shrubs. Occurs as high as about 4,900 ft (1,500 m).

BEHAVIOR

Mostly occurs as skulking, inconspicuous pairs. The song is a nasal, two-noted vocalization.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for insects and other small invertebrates on the ground or in dense vegetation.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a bulky globular nest of sticks and grassy fibers attached to a shrub, with a side entrance. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Great spinetail

Siptornopsis hypochondriacus

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Siptornopsis hypochondriacus Salvin, 1895. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe a poitrine rayée; German: Salvinschlüpfer; Spanish: Canastero Grande.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 7.5 in (18.5 cm). Bill is short, slightly downcurved, and pointed. The body is relatively robust, and the tail is long and indistinctly forked. The sexes are similar. The back and tail are colored olive-brown, the wings are olive-brown with rufous patches, the throat and belly are whitish streaked with brown on the flanks, the crown of the head is olive, and there is a white stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

An endemic, little-known species that only occurs in a small area, in the Rio Maranon Valley of northern Peru.

HABITAT

Occurs on slopes in humid, dense montane shrubs and forest. Mostly occurs at elevations of 6,550-9,850 ft (2,000-3,000 m).

BEHAVIOR

Not well known. Occurs as pairs. The song is a loud chatter.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for insects and other small invertebrates.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a large, bulky, roofed nest of sticks. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

An endemic species, and listed as Vulnerable because of its small range and few known populations. Its habitat is thought to be declining in area because of conversion into agricultural land-use and other disturbances. This little-known species should be better-studied, and its critical habitat conserved.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Streak-capped spinetail

Cranioleuca hellmayri

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Cranioleuca hellmayri Bangs, 1907. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe des bromeliades; German: Strichelkopf-schlüpfer; Spanish: Pijui de Reiser.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 5.5 in (14 cm). Bill is short, almost straight, and pointed. The body is slender, and the tail long and tipped with small spines. The sexes are similar. The back is colored dark olive-brown, the tail is rufous, the wings are olive-brown with large rufous patches, the throat is white, the belly is light olive, the crown of the head is rufous streaked with black, and there is a whitish stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

An endemic species that only occurs in a small area, in the Santa Marta Mountains of northern Colombia.

HABITAT

Inhabits slopes with montane humid forest, mature second growth woodland, and forest edges. Mostly occurs at elevations of 5,250-9,850 ft (1,600-3,000 m).

BEHAVIOR

Occurs as pairs. The song is a series of shrill notes, falling in intensity and pitch.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages acrobatically in the forest canopy, even hanging upside-down, for insects and other small invertebrates.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a large, bulky, roughly spherical nest of mosses and other fibers, with a side entrance, and attached to a drooping outer limb of a tree. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A very local species, but abundant within its highly restricted range.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Mouse-colored thistletail

Schizoeaca griseomurina

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Schizoeaca griseomurina P.L. Sclater, 1882.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe souris; German: Grau-Dis-

telschwanzschlupfer; Spanish: Piscuiz Gris.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 7.5 in (18.5-19 cm). Bill is short, straight, and pointed. The body is slender, and the tail is very long, tipped with spines, and has a frayed appearance. The sexes are similar. The back, tail, and wings are colored dull olive-brown, the belly and throat are light grayish, there is a white eye-ring, and there is a whitish stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

An endemic species that only occurs in a small area in the Andes of southern Ecuador and extreme northern Peru.

HABITAT

Inhabits slopes with humid montane forest and woodland and their edges, just below or near the altitudinal tree-line and in woody clumps above it. Occurs at elevations of 9,200-10,800 ft (2,800-3,300 m).

BEHAVIOR

Occurs singly or as pairs. The song is a high-pitched trill. FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages in the dense forest canopy, often quite acrobatically, for insects and other small invertebrates among leaves and twigs.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a large, bulky, roughly spherical nest, with a side entrance, and attached to a limb of a tree. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A very local species, but abundant within its highly restricted range.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Greater thornbird

Phacellodomus ruber

SUBFAMILY

Synallaxeinae

TAXONOMY

Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Synallaxe rouge; German: Rotschwingen-Bundelnister; Spanish: Espinero Grande.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 8 in (20.5 cm). Bill is short, slightly down-curved, and pointed. The body is stout, and the tail is long. The sexes are similar. The back is colored brown, the tail and wings are rufous, the belly and throat are whitish, the cap of the head is rufous, and there is a light-brown stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

A widespread species occurring in Bolivia, central Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina, and likely extreme northern Uruguay.

HABITAT

Inhabits the undergrowth of humid tropical forest near ponds and other surface water. Occurs at elevations up to 4,600 ft (1,400 m).

BEHAVIOR

A skulking bird that occurs singly or as pairs. The song is a long series of loud, abrupt, accelerating notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages on the forest floor and at nearby edges of waterbodies for insects and other small invertebrates.

Phacellodomus ruber

H Resident

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a large, conspicuous, bulky, roughly cylindrical nest of sticks and twigs, often containing several chambers, and attached to an outer, drooping branch of a tree. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

White-throated treerunner

Pygarrhichas albogularis

SUBFAMILY

Philydorinae

TAXONOMY

Pygarrhichas albogularis King, 1831. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Picotelle a gorge blanche; German: Spechttöpfer; Spanish: Picolezna Patagónico.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 6 in (14.5-15 cm). Bill is of medium length, slightly upturned, and sharply pointed. The body is

chunky, and the tail is short and tipped with short spines emanating from the tips of the tail-feathers. The sexes are similar. The back and the top of the head are colored brown, the tail is rufous, the wings have rufous patches, the belly is brown spotted with white, and the throat and chest are bright white.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in central and southern Chile and adjacent western Argentina through most of Tierra del Fuego. Occurs on many coastal islands.

HABITAT

Inhabits deciduous temperate forest dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus species), as well as clearings having some mature trees present. Occurs as high as about 3,950 ft (1,200 m).

BEHAVIOR

Non-migratory. Occurs singly or as pairs. Often occurs with other birds in mixed-species flocks. Can be quite tame with humans. The song is a loud, repeated, metallic, one- or two-syllable note.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A locally abundant species within its habitat.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Rufous-tailed xenops

Xenops milleri

SUBFAMILY

Philydorinae

TAXONOMY

Xenops milleri Chapman, 1914. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Sittine a queue rousse; German: Rotschwanz-Baum-spaher; Spanish: Picolezna de Cola Rufa.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 4 in (11 cm). Bill is short, straight, and pointed. The body is slender, and the tail is moderately long. The sexes are similar. The back, top of head, and underparts are brown heavily streaked with buffy-white, the wing and tail are rufous, the wing shows a conspicuous rufous wing-band in flight, and there is a white stripe over the eye.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages nuthatch-like for insects and other invertebrates on the trunks of trees and branches, sometimes moving downwards head-first.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a nest within a cavity dug into rotten wood of a branch. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in northern South America, in southern Venezuela, French Guiana, Surinam, southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, Amazonian Brazil, and likely northern Bolivia.

HABITAT

Inhabits humid, lowland tropical forest, occurring in both the tree canopy and at forest-edges. Occurs as high as about 2,000 ft (600 m).

BEHAVIOR

A non-migratory species. Occurs singly or as a breeding pair. Often occurs with other birds in mixed-species foraging flocks. The song is not known, but is likely a series of shrill notes, similar to other xenops.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages on tree branches and in dense vine-tangles for insects and other invertebrates.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a nest within a cavity dug into rotten wood of a branch or tree trunk, or uses a natural cavity or one excavated and abandoned by another species of bird. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Rufous-necked foliage-gleaner

Syndactyla ruficollis

SUBFAMILY

Philydorinae

TAXONOMY

Syndactyla ruficollis Taczanowski, 1884. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Red-necked foliage-gleaner; French: Anabate a cou roux; German: Rothals-Baumspäher; Spanish: Trepamusgo de Cuello Rufo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 7 in (18-18.5 cm). Bill is short, straight, rather stout, and pointed. The body is slender, and the tail is long. The sexes are similar. The back, neck, and top of the head are rufous-brown, the underparts are brown streaked with buff, the tail is rufous, and there is a buffy stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

An endemic species that occurs only in a small Andean region of extreme southern Ecuador and northern Peru.

HABITAT

Inhabits humid, lowland and montane forest, secondary woodland, and forest edges. Mostly inhabits evergreen humid forest, but also occurs in somewhat drier, deciduous forest. Occurs mostly at 4,250-9,400 ft (1,300-2,700 m), but as low as 1,950 ft (600 m) in undisturbed primary forest.

BEHAVIOR

A non-migratory species. Occurs singly, as a breeding pair, or in a small group. Often occurs with other birds in mixed-

species foraging flocks. The song is an accelerating series of harsh, nasal notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages on tree branches and trunks for insects and other invertebrates hidden among bark or in epiphytic mosses and bromeliads.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a nest within a burrow dug into an earthen bank. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

This endemic species is listed as Vulnerable, largely because its highly restricted habitat is being fragmented by conversion into agricultural land-use and further reduced by other disturbances.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Cinnamon-rumped foliage-gleaner

Philydor pyrrhodes

SUBFAMILY

Philydorinae

TAXONOMY

Philydor pyrrhodes Cabanis, 1848.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Anabate flamboyant; German: Zimtbürzel-Blattspaher; Spanish: Ticotico Acanelado.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 6.5 in (16.5-17 cm). Bill is moderately long, slightly downcurved, and pointed. The body is stout, and the tail is long. The sexes are similar. The back, wings, and top of the head are brown, the underparts, tail, rump, and throat are bright cinnamon-brown, and there is a cinnamon stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

A widespread species that occurs in the Guianas, southern Venezuela, southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia, and Amazonian Brazil.

HABITAT

Inhabits humid, lowland, tropical forest, including terra firme (or non-flooded) and wetter stands. Tends to occur where palms are abundant. Occurs as high as about 2,300 ft (700 m).

BEHAVIOR

Non-migratory. Occurs singly, or as a breeding pair. Sometimes associates with mixed-species foraging flocks. The song is not known, but is likely a long chatter of notes, similar to other species in its genus.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a nest within a cavity in a tree or snag, but may also dig a nesting burrow in an earthen bank. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread but uncommon species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Short-billed leaftosser

Sclerurus rufigularis

SUBFAMILY

Philydorinae

TAXONOMY

Sclerurus rufigularis Pelzeln, 1868. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Short-billed leafscraper; French: Sclerure a bec court; German: Kurzschnabel-Laubwender; Spanish: Raspahojas de Pico Corto.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length is about 6 in (16 cm). Bill is short, straight, and pointed. The body is stout, and the tail is moderately long. The sexes are similar. The upperparts are dark-brown, the tail

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

A furtive species that forages in dense foliage and thick cover for insects and other invertebrates.

is blackish brown, the underparts are cinnamon-brown, and there is a tan stripe over the eye.

DISTRIBUTION

A widespread species that occurs in the Guianas, southern Venezuela, southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia, and Amazonian Brazil.

HABITAT

Inhabits humid, lowland, tropical forest and humid montane forest. Mostly occurs up to about 1,650 ft (500 m), and rarely as high as 5,900 ft (1,800 m).

BEHAVIOR

A non-migratory species. Occurs singly, or as a breeding pair. Sometimes associates with mixed-species foraging flocks. The song is a long trill or chatter.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

A furtive species that forages in dense foliage on or near the ground for insects and other invertebrates. It searches among leaf litter, often tossing debris with its bill to search beneath for prey.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs a nest within a long burrow dug into an earthen bank. Both the male and female incubate the eggs and rear the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread but uncommon species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Resources

Books

BirdLife International. Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, 2000.

Ridgely, R.S., and G. Tudor. The Birds of South America.

Volume 2, The Suboscine Passerines. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1994.

Skutch, A.F. Antbirds and Ovenbirds: Their Lives and Homes. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1996.

Organizations

BirdLife International. Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0NA United Kingdom. Phone: +44 1 223 277 318. Fax: +44-1-223-277-200. Email: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.birdlife .net>

IUCN-The World Conservation Union. Rue Mauverney 28, Gland, 1196 Switzerland. Phone: +41-22-999-0001. Fax: +41-22-999-0025. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.iucn.org>

Bill Freedman, PhD

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