Species accounts

The Complete Cricket Breeding Manual

Crickets Breeding Made Simple

Get Instant Access

Plain-brown woodcreeper

Dendrocincla fuliginosa

TAXONOMY

Dendrocincla fuliginosa Vieillot, 1818. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Thrush-like woodcreeper; French: Grimpar enfuma; German: Grauwangenbaumsteiger; Spanish: Trepatronco Pardo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length 8-8.5 in (19.5-21.5 cm). Has a stout, chisel-shaped bill. Overall coloration is rufous-brown, redder on the rump and tail and lighter on the belly. There is geographic variation in coloration among races of this widespread species.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs throughout much of tropical Central and South America, from Honduras in the north through to Amazonian Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. Also occurs along the Pacific coast of Ecuador and Colombia.

HABITAT

Occurs in a range of types of humid tropical rainforest and in mature secondary forest. Inhabits the lower part of the canopy. Occurs as high as about 4,300 ft (1,300 m).

BEHAVIOR

Usually occurs singly or in pairs, or sometimes in small groups in the vicinity of a swarm of army ants. The song is a prolonged series of high-pitched notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Often attends swarms of army ants along with other species in a mixed foraging flock. Forages from a perch on a tree trunk, making sallies to catch insects disturbed by the ants. Also forages for arthropods on bark surfaces.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two or three eggs in a nest in a tree-cavity or abandoned woodpecker hole. The sexes share incubation and care of the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Long-tailed woodcreeper

Deconychura longicauda

TAXONOMY

Deconychura longicauda Pelzeln, 1868. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Grimpar a longue queue; German: LangschwanzBaumsteiger; Spanish: Trepatronco de Cola Larga.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

7.5-8.5 in (19-21.5 cm). Has a relatively long tail and a stout, chisel-shaped bill. Overall coloration is rufous-brown, redder on the rump and tail, with a buff-colored throat.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs throughout much of tropical Central and South America, from Honduras in the north, through Costa Rica, Panama, and parts of Venezuela, the Guianas, Colombia, Ecuador, and Amazonian Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. It has disjunct populations in the northern parts of the range, which could represent separate species.

HABITAT

Occurs in humid tropical and montane forest, especially in terra firme (or unflooded) forest. Occurs in the lower and middle levels of the canopy. Occurs as high as about 4,300 ft (1,300 m).

BEHAVIOR

Usually occurs singly or in pairs, or sometimes in mixed-species foraging flocks. The song is a series of high-pitched whistled notes, but it varies among geographic races (which may actually be separate species).

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages on tree-trunks and stout branches.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two or three eggs in a nest in a tree-cavity or abandoned woodpecker hole. The sexes share incubation and care of the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Long-billed woodcreeper

Nasica longirostris

TAXONOMY

Nasica longirostris Vieillot, 1818. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Grimpar nasican; German: Langschnabel-Baumsteiger; Spanish: Trepatronco de Pico Largo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length 14-14.5 in (35-36 cm). A large woodcreeper with a long tail and a stout, slightly downcurved, white-colored bill that

Verbreitung Von Hellroten Ara

makes up about one-third of the body length. The back and tail are colored rufous-brown, the neck and back of head are brown speckled with white, and the throat and chest are white.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs throughout much of tropical South America, including southwestern Venezuela, eastern parts of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, and most of Amazonian Brazil.

HABITAT

Inhabits humid, lowland, non-flooded tropical forest, usually close to surface water, as high as about 1,000 ft (300 m). Occurs in the middle and higher levels of the canopy.

BEHAVIOR

Usually occurs singly or in pairs. The song is a series of three or four long, eerie, whistled notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for arthropods on tree-trunks and stout branches, often near forest-edges in the vicinity of a body of water.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two to three eggs in a nest in a tree-cavity or abandoned woodpecker hole. The sexes share incubation and care of the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Scimitar-billed woodcreeper

Drymornis bridgesii

TAXONOMY

Drymornis bridgesii Eyton, 1849. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Grimpar porte-sabre; German: DegenschnabelBaumsteiger; Spanish: Chinchero Grande.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length 12 in (30-31 cm). A large woodcreeper with a long tail and a stout, strongly downcurved, blackish bill that makes up about one-third of the body length. The back and tail are colored olive-brown, with white stripes along the side of the face, a white throat, and a brown-and-white striped belly.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in southern Bolivia, southern Brazil, western Paraguay, and northern and central Argentina.

HABITAT

Inhabits relatively open, lowland tropical forest and scrub, as high as about 1,650 ft (500 m).

BEHAVIOR

Usually occurs singly or in pairs. The song is a series of loud, fast, shrieks.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for arthropods on tree-trunks and stout branches, and sometimes on the ground.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two or three eggs in a nest in a tree-cavity or abandoned woodpecker hole. The sexes share incubation and care of the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Uniform woodcreeper

Hylexetastes uniformis

TAXONOMY

Hylexetastes uniformis Hellmayr, 1909. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Grimpar uniforme; German: Wellenbauch-Baumsteiger; Spanish: Trepatronco de Pico Rayado.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length 10.5 in (27 cm). A large woodcreeper with a long tail and a stout, short, reddish bill. The back and tail are uni

formly colored reddish brown, with a somewhat lighter belly, and few distinct markings.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in southeastern Bolivia and central Amazonian Brazil. HABITAT

Inhabits lowland, humid, tropical forest, as high as about 1,650 ft (500 m).

BEHAVIOR

Usually occurs singly or in pairs. The song is a series of four to six loud, piercing whistles.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for arthropods on tree-trunks and stout branches. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two or three eggs in a nest in a tree-cavity or abandoned woodpecker hole. The sexes share incubation and care of the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread but not abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Great rufous woodcreeper

Xiphocolaptes major

TAXONOMY

Xiphocolaptes major Vieillot, 1818. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Grand Grimpar; German: Riesenbaumsteiger; Spanish: Trepatronco Castaño.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length 11-12 in (28-31 cm). A large woodcreeper with a long tail and a stout, rather long, slightly downcurved bill. The back and tail are uniformly colored rufous-brown, with a somewhat lighter cinnamon-brown head and underparts.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in north and central Bolivia, southwestern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina.

HABITAT

Inhabits lowland subtropical forest and open woodland, as high as about 4,900 ft (1,500 m).

BEHAVIOR

Usually occurs singly or in pairs. The song is a series of loud, piercing whistles.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for arthropods on tree-trunks and stout branches, and sometimes on the ground.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two or three eggs in a nest in a tree-cavity or abandoned woodpecker hole. The sexes share incubation and care of the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread but not abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Maps America

Xiphocolaptes major H Resident

Lesser woodcreeper

Lepidocolaptes fuscus

TAXONOMY

Lepidocolaptes fuscus Vieillot, 1818. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Grimpar brun; German: Schlankschnabel-Baumsteiger; Spanish: Chinchero Enano.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length about 7 in (17-18 cm). A medium-sized, rather slender woodcreeper with a long tail and a slim, short, down-curved bill. The back and tail are colored rufous-brown, the throat is whitish, and the underparts are brown-and-white streaked.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs widely in northeastern South America, in eastern Brazil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina.

HABITAT

Inhabits humid lowland tropical forest, mature secondary forest, and montane forest as high as about 4,300 ft (1,300 m).

BEHAVIOR

Usually occurs singly or in pairs, but may also accompany mixed-species foraging flocks. The song is a trill-like series of notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for arthropods on tree-trunks and stout branches.

Verbreitung Von Hellroten Ara

Lepidocolaptes fuscus I Resident

Campylorhamphus Trochilirostris

Campylorhamphus trochilirostris

H Resident

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two or three eggs in a nest in a tree-cavity or abandoned woodpecker hole. The sexes share incubation and care of the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Red-billed scythebill

Campylorhamphus trochilirostris

TAXONOMY

Campylorhamphus trochilirostris M.H.K. Lichtenstein, 1820. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Black-billed scythebill; French: Grimpar a bec rouge; German: Rotrücken-Sensenschnabel; Trauersensenschnabel; Spanish: Picapalo Rojizo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body length 9.5-11 in (24-28 cm). A large woodcreeper with a long tail and a slender, long, strongly downcurved, reddish bill (length 2.5-3.5 in; 6.5-9 cm). The back and tail are colored ru fous-brown, with lighter cinnamon-brown underparts, and brown-and-white streaked head and throat.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs widely in three disjunct regions, including areas in Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina.

HABITAT

Inhabits lowland humid tropical forest, mature secondary forest, open woodland, and montane forest as high as about 6,600 ft (2,000 m).

BEHAVIOR

Usually occurs singly or in pairs, but may accompany mixed-species foraging flocks. The song is a series of ascending or descending musical notes.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages for arthropods on tree-trunks and stout branches. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two or three eggs in a nest in a tree-cavity or abandoned woodpecker hole. The sexes share incubation and care of the nestlings.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A widespread and locally abundant species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Resources

Books

BirdLife International. Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain, and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, 2000.

Ridgely, R.S., and G. Tudor. The Birds of South America. Vol. II, The Suboscine Passerines. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1994.

Organizations

BirdLife International. Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0NA United Kingdom.

Phone: +44 1 223 277 318. Fax: +44-1-223-277-200. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.birdlife.net>

IUCN-The World Conservation Union. Rue Mauverney 28, Gland, 1196 Switzerland. Phone: +41-22-999-0001. Fax: +41-22-999-0025. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.iucn.org>

Bill Freedman, PhD

Ant thrushes

Class Aves

(Formicariidae)

Order Passeriformes Suborder Tyranni (Suboscines)

\ \ m

Family Formicariidae

Thumbnail description

Small to medium-sized songbirds with short,

■ ^^

rounded wings, a short or long tail, and a stout

y \

or slender bill slightly hooked at the tip, feed on

* ' L

insects on the ground or in trees or thickets;

{

prey is usually gleaned from foliage, although

)

some species also catch flying insects. Some

\ ^B /

species participate in mixed-species foraging

\ ^^ (

flocks that follow columns of army ants to catch

i

insects and other small animals

J ■ j

Size

m

4-14 inches (10-36 cm)

/ j

Number of genera, species

j ^ /

52 genera; 244 species

i ^^^v

Habitat

\ rJ

Shrublands and forests in subtropics and

h 5>

tropics

Jf ¿

Conservation status

fï r

Critically Endangered: 4 species; Endangered:

16 species; Vulnerable: 16 species; Near

Threatened: 18 species; Data Deficient: 1

species

Distribution

Southern Mexico to northern Argentina, with most species in the Amazonian region of tropical South America

Evolution and systematics

As treated here, the Formicariidae includes two closely related groups of perching birds (Passeriformes), which are sometimes considered as separate families. These are the ground antbirds and the typical antbirds (separated by some taxonomists into the family Thamnophilidae). These are large and highly varied groups of birds, consisting of about 56 species of ground antbirds and 188 species of typical antbirds. Their greatest species radiation and diversity occur in the Amazonian basin of tropical South America, where some locations may have as many as 30-40 species of Formicariidae present. Many species have only recently been described, and little is known of the life history, behavior, or ecology of any but the most abundant species in the family.

Physical characteristics

The family Formicariidae contains about 244 species of birds variously known as ant thrushes, antbirds, antcatchers, antpittas, antshrikes, or antwrens. They are among the most widespread and abundant birds of tropical and subtropical re gions of Central and South America. Because there are so many species, the typical characteristics of the group are not readily described. Moreover, the more widespread species may exhibit considerably geographic variation in plumage patterns and coloration, and sometimes in foraging ecology, song, and other qualities as well.

The wings are generally short and rounded. Some species have a short tail, which they typically hold erect, while in others it is longer than the body. The bill of the larger species is relatively stout and has a hooked tip. The bill may also have a single serration on the side, known as a tooth, similar to that of shrikes (Laniidae). Smaller species in the antbird family have a finer, smooth bill and lack the tooth. The legs of species that live on or close to the ground are muscular and long, particularly in the antpittas, although the toes are relatively short. The plumage is typically full and soft, especially on the back and sides of the body of the antshrikes. The sexes of the Thamnophilidae group are usually strongly dimorphic in the coloration of their plumage, while those of the Formicariidae are mostly similar, or monomorphic. In sexually dimorphic species, the coloration is generally dark in

A female plain antvireo (Dysithamnus mentalis) brooding nestlings in Costa Rica. (Photo by Michael Fogden/Animals Animals. Reproduced by permission.)

restrial in their foraging preference, while those in the Formicariidae group are mostly arboreal. Only a few species, however, forage in the uppermost tree-crown part of the canopy or inhabit open shrubby areas exposed to the sun. Occasionally, they may be seen bathing in shallows of quiet forest streams or in rain puddles. None of the ant thrushes or antbirds flies far; rather, they make short-distance flights within a territory or local foraging habitat. When they sense an invasion of their territory by a competitor, males tend to fly directly through the undergrowth towards the source of a specific song; some species respond strongly to playbacks of their own songs, making it easier to see them in dense vegetation.

When foraging, or if agitated, some species move about in noisy jumps, while others slink through the dense foliage. Often, however, they will fly up to a branch to briefly perch for a better view of an intruder. Most species have bright, white signal spots, particularly on the back, that are hidden deep in the plumage when the bird is at rest. When they feel threatened, the birds display these prominent spots in an alternating on-and-off-again manner, alerting nearby individuals to the presence of possible danger. Almost all species vocalize frequently and loudly, and are much more often heard than seen. Songs generally consist of short rhythmical phrases. These are rather non-melodious and quacking in many of the ant-shrikes, and other species have pure whistling sounds. However, the loud, flute-like, long-lasting scales of the ant thrushes are among the most beautiful, harmonious, and characteristic avian sounds of forests of the tropical Americas. Females also sing, and sometimes a pair will vocalize as a coordinated duet. Fledged young males, and often black, gray, with some white, while females are generally brown and more strikingly patterned with bright or paler spots on the body, wings, and tail. Females of some widespread species show considerably more geographic variation in their coloration than do the males, an unusual pattern referred to as heterogynism.

Distribution

Distribution of species in the family Formicariidae ranges from warm, humid regions of southern Mexico to Paraguay and northern Argentina in South America. The largest number of species is found in the Amazon basin and other regions of tropical rainforest.

Habitat

Formicariids occur in a variety of shrubby and forested habitats in subtropical and tropical regions. Species occur in a wide range of lowland forests and woodlands, including secondary forest, and range as high as montane cloud-forest.

Behavior

Species of ant thrushes and antbirds tend to forage on the ground or into the medium levels of the forest canopy. In general, those in the Thamnophilidae group are mainly ter-

A male slaty antwren (Myrmotherula schisticolor) at its nest in Costa Rica. (Photo by Michael Fogden/Animals Animals. Reproduced by per-

sometimes make themselves noticeable by making conspicuous location calls.

Feeding ecology and diet

The tooth on the bill is used effectively in killing prey, including such arthropods as crickets, bugs, beetles, spiders, centipedes, and woodlice, and sometimes other kinds of invertebrates such as land snails. Larger species of these birds may also eat small frogs, lizards, snakes, mice, and young nestlings. Some species supplement their diet with seeds and small fruits.

The "ant-" prefix of the name of many species derives from the habit of seeking and following foraging swarms of army ants. They do this to snatch up the many arthropods and other small animals flushed by the foraging ants. Some ant-following species are so closely adapted to army ants that they are rarely found far from swarms of these insects. The behavior of antbirds and other species near a foraging swarm of army ants is a thrilling spectacle. Antbirds themselves are a useful guide to finding ant swarms, because their loud calls and songs betray the presence of the insects. The birds are particularly attracted to swarms of the red army ant (Eciton burchelli) and the smaller black rain ant (Labiduspraedator). During their periods of mass foraging, huge numbers of heavily armed army ants are on the move, sometimes in fronts several feet wide, but often in narrower columns. The ground appears to come alive at the front of an advancing column as many small animals and insects run to escape the aggressively foraging ants. Crickets, in particular, may rise up in astonishing numbers. Even larger animals such as lizards, mice, and bird nestlings are potential prey for the swarms of army ants.

When found and killed, the dead prey are cut into pieces by the ants and hauled to the central, staging location of the swarm. Meanwhile, antbirds and other birds pick off some of the smaller prey as they flush into the open. The antbirds commonly hang off a woody shoot close to the ground or from a low vine, or perch upon a stump, waiting for the flushing of prey. For some species, the local presence of one or more army-ant swarms is a crucial attribute of habitat quality, which may be vigorously defended against intruders of the same or other species. Outside the breeding season, ant-dependent species may be nomadic to some degree, seeking active swarms of army ants. Dominant individuals, particularly adult males and owners of nearby territories, often drive off juvenile birds of their species. During the breeding season, antbird pairs usually restrict themselves to ant swarms that pass near their nest. A behavior known as anting, or the rubbing of live ants into the plumage, has been observed in antbirds as well as other birds, likely serving to kill skin parasites by releasing the formic acid of the ants.

Reproductive biology

Most formicariids appear to be sedentary, staying within their breeding territory. Most species, possibly all, appear to be monogamous, mating for life. Many species construct a deep, open-cup nest lightly fitted into a narrow branch-fork

A rusty-backed antwren (Formicívora rufa) at its nest in Brazil. (Photo by Fabio Colombini/Animals Animals. Reproduced by permission.)

of thinner branches of a shrub or low tree, often hanging over water. Other species build well-closed, spherical, oven-shaped nests with a side entrance on the forest floor. Still others build a woven pouch-nest. Some species breed in natural cavities in rotted trees, logs, or stumps. The typical clutch is two eggs, colored white or yellowish with fine spots, or sometimes an unspotted white or uniform blue-green. For most species, incubation is 14-17 days. Although most species have not been studied well, it appears that the general pattern is for parents to share in the incubation of eggs (though females usually brood at night), feeding of the young, and tending of the fledglings. Young leave the nest soon after hatching and follow their parents about, seeking food and shelter. Many species appear to remain paired all year, and most remain in or close to their territory. Some species, however, become sociable after the breeding season and wander about in mixed foraging flocks with ovenbirds, wood-creepers, tanagers, and other small birds.

Conservation status

As of 2001, the IUCN listed 36 species as being threatened, plus an additional 19 species that are considered Near Threatened or Data Deficient. Little is known, however, about the conservation status of many other species in the family Formicariidae. As additional research is done, further species will certainly be listed as threatened. Many of these and other tropical and subtropical birds are declining rapidly in abundance because of destruction of natural forest habitats. Threatened species listed by the IUCN include:

• The white-bearded antshrike (Biatas nigropectus) is a rare species in bamboo-containing forest of southeastern Brazil and nearby Argentina. It is considered Vulnerable because of destruction of most of its original forest habitat in montane and lowland zones.

• The recurve-billed bushbird (Clytoctantes alixii) occurs only in a few isolated localities in westernmost Venezuela and nearby Colombia and is considered Endangered. The forest habitat of this species in lowlands and foothills has mostly been destroyed to develop agricultural lands.

• The speckled antshrike (Xenornis setifrons) inhabits steep, damp slopes and ravines in eastern Panama and adjacent northwestern Colombia and is considered Vulnerable. Its habitat of humid lowland and foothill forest has mostly been cleared for agricultural development and highway construction.

• The Alagoas antwren (Myrmotherula snowi) is a Critically Endangered species that persists only in a tiny area of upland forest in northeastern Brazil, the rest of its original habitat having been lost to deforestation.

• The ash-throated antwren (Herpsilochmus parkeri) is an Endangered species occurring in a tiny range in northern Peru. Its humid montane forest is being lost to agricultural deforestation.

• The black-hooded antwren (Formicivora erythronotos) is an Endangered species whose only known surviving habitat near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is being degraded by tourism and recreational development.

• The rufous-fronted ant thrush (Formicarius rufifrons) is a Near Threatened species of southeastern Peru. Its habitat of riverine floodplain thickets is at risk from agricultural development.

• The giant antpitta (Grallaria gigantea) is Endangered and occurs in moist cloud-forest habitat in southwestern Colombia and nearby Ecuador. Its habitat is being destroyed by agricultural deforestation.

• The bicolored antpitta (Grallaria rufocinerea) is a Vulnerable species of the Central Andean region of Colombia. Its habitat of cloud-forest and humid montane forest has mostly been cleared for agricultural land-use.

Significance to humans

Formicariids are rarely hunted as food. As such, they are not of much direct importance to humans. However, views of these and other tropical and subtropical birds are widely sought by birdwatchers and other ecotourists, and this can bring significant economic benefits to accessible areas that retain natural forest habitat.

Spot Winged Antbird

1. Warbling antbird (Hypocnemis cantator); 2. Black-throated antbird (Myrmeciza atrothorax); 3. Black-faced antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus); 4. Spot-backed antbird (Hylophylax naevia); 5. Gray antbird (Cercomacra cinerascens); 6. Giant ant-pitta (Grallaria gigantea); 7. Black-faced antthrush (Formicarius analis); 8. Fulvous-bellied ant-pitta (Hylopezus dives); 9. Thrush-like ant-pitta (Myrmothera campanisona). (Illustration by Dan Erickson)

Black Faced Pitta

1. Spot-crowned antvireo (Dysithamnus puncticeps); 2. Gray antwren (Myrmotherula menetriesii); 3. Ash-winged antwren (Terenura spodioptila); 4. Black-capped antwren (Herpsilochmus atricapillus); 5. Scaled antbird (Drymophila squamata); 6. Undulated antshrike (Frederickena unduligera); 7. Barred antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus); 8. Fasciated antshrike (Cymbilaimus lineatus); 9. Giant antshrike (Batara cinerea); 10. Cinereous antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius). (Illustration by Dan Erickson)

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment