Silverbreasted broadbill

Serilophus lunatus

SUBFAMILY Eurylaiminae

TAXONOMY

Eurylaimus lunatus Gould, 1833 (1834), near Rangoon. Eight subspecies recognized.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Gould's broadbill, collared broadbill, Hodgson's broadbill; French: Eurylaime du Gould; German: Würgerbreitrachen; Spanish: Pico Ancho de Pecho Plateado.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

6.3-6.7 in (16-17 cm); 0.9-1.2 oz (25-35 g). Grayish head with black behind eyes. Whitish breast and wingtips. Wings alternate black and blue with some rusty color. Back is light gray, turning to dark rust colored at rump and black on the tail.

DISTRIBUTION

5. l. lunatus: Myanmar and northwestern Thailand. 5. l. rubropy-gius: Nepal east to northeastern India, Myanmar. 5. l. elisabethae: northeastern Myanmar, eastern Thailand, southern China, Vietnam, and north central Laos. 5. l. impavidus: Bolovens Plateau, southern Laos. 5. l. rothschildi: penisular Malaysia and southern peninsular Thailand. 5. l. intesus: Sumatra. 5. l. polionotus: mountains of Hainan. 5. l. stolidus: southern Myanmar and northern peninsular Thailand. Elevational range variable, depending on location from lowlands to 7,320 ft (2,230 m) in Thailand.

HABITAT

Evergreen and semi-evergreen tropical and subtropical forests. Often associated with bamboo.

BEHAVIOR

In pairs or mixed and single species flocks. Both parents, and possibly helpers, care for brood. Some altitudinal and short distance movements.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Mostly insectivorous; also eats snails and small lizards. Feeds by gleaning from foliage and branches, ocassionally sallying.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Breeding begins in March to July depending on locality. In the north coincides with abundant rain and in the south with dry conditions. Lays four to seven eggs.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened; rare to locally common. Sold in the local pet trade in Thailand.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS Used as cage bird. ♦

Black-and-yellow broadbill

Eurylaimus ochromalus

SUBFAMILY

Eyrylaiminae

TAXONOMY

Eurylaimus ochromalus Raffles, 1822, Singapore Island. Three subspecies recognized.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Eurylaime a capuchon; German: Halsband-Breitrachen; Spanish: Pico Ancho Negro y Amarillo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

5.3-5.9 in (13.5-15 cm); 1.1-1.4 oz (31-39 g). Blue bill, black head, white band at throat. Whitish to rosy breast to yellow behind abdomen. Wings and tail black with yellow bands on wings, white spots on tail.

DISTRIBUTION

E. o. ochromalus: peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Riau and Lingga Archipelagoes, Belitung, Bangka, Batu, and North Natuna Islands. E. o. mecistus: Tuangku Island to the northwest of Sumatra. E. o. kalamantan: Sarawak.

HABITAT

Evergreen forests, lower montane rainforests, peat swamp and tidal swamp forests, and mixed dipterocarp forests. Also in logged forests, secondary vegetation, and overgrown plantations.

BEHAVIOR

During courtship display the male stretches its wings and wags its tail, whereas the female shivers her half-spread wings, exposing a white rump.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Insectivorous, eats little fruit. Catches insects by sallying. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Breeding between February and October depending on locality. Lays two to three eggs.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Visayan wattled broadbill

Eurylaimus samarensis

SUBFAMILY

Eurylaiminae

TAXONOMY

Sarcophanops samarensis Steere, 1890, Catbalogan, Samar. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Samar broadbill, Visayan broadbill; French: Eurylaime de Steere; German: Philippinenbreitrachen; Spanish: Pico Ancho Caranculado.

Feeding Ecology

Eurylaimus ochromalus

Resident

Eurylaimus ochromalus

Resident

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

5.7-5.9 in (14.5-15.0 cm); 1.2-1.5 oz (33.5-41.5 g). Dark reddish head, upperparts, and tail. Black on wings and under bill. White band around throat and on wings. Upper breast is rosy, turning to white below.

DISTRIBUTION

Leyte, Samar, and Bohol in the Visayan Islands, Philippines. HABITAT

Understory of primary forest between 330 and 1,975 ft (100-600 m).

BEHAVIOR

Little known. Usually found in pairs, small groups, or mixed-species flocks.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET Insectivorous, may eat some fruit.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Probably breeds February to June.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Vulnerable. Threatened by deforestation. This species has a very small occupied range and a small population.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Dusky broadbill

Corydon sumatranus

SUBFAMILY

Eurylaiminae

TAXONOMY

Coracius sumatranus Raffles, 1822, interior of Sumatra. Three subspecies recognized.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Eurylaime corydon; German: Reisenbreitrachen; Spanish: Pico Ancho Sombrío.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

9.4-10.8 in (24-27.5 cm); about 4.9 oz (140 g); has exceptionally broad bill and wide gape. Black body, white at throat and white banding on tail.

DISTRIBUTION

C. s. sumatranus: Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia and Thailand, and Penang Island. C. s. laoensis: Patchily in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. C. s. brunnescens: Borneo and North Natuna Islands. Possibly up to 6,600 ft (2,000 m).

HABITAT

Canopy of rainforests and primary and logged evergreen and deciduous forests.

BEHAVIOR

Probably a cooperative breeder. Usually found in groups.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds on large insects (up to 3.1-3.9 in [8-10 cm] in length) and lizards. Usually gleans after a short flight.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

In northern part of the range breeding starts at the end of the dry season, in the southern part during the rainy season. Lays four to six eggs.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened, though habitat loss due to logging and deforestation may have led to a range contraction.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

African green broadbill

Pseudocalyptomena graueri

SUBFAMILY

Eurylaiminae (Pseudocalyptomeninae) TAXONOMY

Pseudocalyptomena graueri Rothschild, 1909. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Grauer's broadbill; French: Eurylaime de Grauer; German: Blaukehl-Breitrachen; Spanish: Pico Ancho Verde Africano.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

5.35-6.14 in (13.6-15.6 cm); 1.0-1.2 oz (29.0-32.5 g). Grayish head, whitish below bill onto breast. Upper- and underparts green. Dark tail.

DISTRIBUTION

Known only from a few localities in extreme eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and western Uganda.

HABITAT

Primary montane forest with dense bamboo, forest edge, and cultivated areas between 5,770 and 8,140 ft (1,760-2,480 m).

BEHAVIOR

Little known; it can be found singly, in small groups, or mixed-species flocks. May perform display flights.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Omnivorous, including fruit, seeds, flowers, insects, and small snails in its diet. Probably feeds by flycatching.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Breeding reported between April and July.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Vulnerable. Threatened in its tiny range by deforestation, commercial logging, and mining.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Resources

Books

BirdLife International. Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International, 2001.

Lambert, Frank, and Martin Woodcock. Pittas, Broadbills and Asities. Sussex, UK: Pica Press, 1996.

Periodicals

Irstedt, Martin, Ulf S. Johansson, Thomas J. Parsons, and Per G. P. Ericson. "Phylogeny of Major Lineages of Suboscines (Passeriformes) Analysed by Nuclear DNA Sequence Data." Journal of Avian Biology 32 (2001): 15-25.

Prum, Richard O. "Phylogeny, Biogeography, and Evolution of the Broadbills (Eurylaimidae) and Asities (Philepittidae) Based on Morphology." Auk 110 (1993): 304-324.

Organizations

BirdLife International Indonesia Programme. P. O. Box 310/Boo, Bogor, Indonesia. Phone: +62 251 357222. Fax: +62 251 357961. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.birdlife-indonesia.org>

Other

World Conservation Monitoring Center. "Threatened Animals of the World. UNEP-WCMC Animal Database." <http:// www.unep-wcmc.org/>

Markus Patricio Tellkamp, MS

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