Rufouscollared kingfisher

Actenoides concretus

SUBFAMILY

Halcyoninae

TAXONOMY

Dacelo concreta Temminck, 1825, Sumatra. Three subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Chestnut-collared kingfisher; French: Martin-chasseur trapu; German: Malaienliest; Spanish: Alcion Malayo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

9-9.5 in (23-24 cm), 2.1-3.2 oz (60-90 g). Dumpy, medium-sized kingfisher, with green crown, blue (male), or buff-spotted green (female) back, rufous below and on collar. Bill black above and yellow below.

DISTRIBUTION

Sunda region of Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra. HABITAT

Dense lowland rainforest, even secondary forest in which canopy regenerated, up to 5,600 ft (1,700 m) above sea level.

BEHAVIOR

Calls with loud, long whistle that rises in tone. Perches mainly in middle and lower levels of dense forest, often with slow head bobbing and tail pumping.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Drops from low perch to snatch prey at water surface or pick up from the ground, sometimes turning over leaves in its search. Feeds on various arthropods, including insects and large scorpions, also snails, fish, small snakes and lizards.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Monogamous pair excavates nest burrow in earth bank, rarely in rotten tree trunk, ending in 8 in (20 cm) diameter nest chamber. Lay two eggs that are incubated for about 22 days.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Considered Near Threatened due to extensive removal of lowland forest, but survives in hill forest and in conserved tracts.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

None known, though most widespread species in genus of six species spread across Southeast Asia. ♦

DISTRIBUTION

Sulawesi in Indonesia, and adjacent larger islands.

HABITAT

Tall primary or secondary rainforest, up to 3,300 ft (1,000 m) above sea level.

BEHAVIOR

Known to roost on bare branch of low tree. Calls with rapid descending series of four notes, repeated every few minutes. Perches for long period in dark forest at middle to lower levels, watching for prey or for a mate to which it may display with raised bill and fanned tail.

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