Fry, C.H., K. Fry, and A. Harris. Kingfishers, Bee-eaters and Rollers. Halfway House, South Africa: Russel Friedman Books, 1992.
Sibley, C.G., and J.E. Ahlquist. Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1990.
Woodall, P.F. "Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)." In Handbook of Birds of the World. Vol. 6, Mousebirds to Hornbills, edited by J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2001.
Fry, C.H. "The Evolutionary Biology of Kingfishers (Alcedinidae)." Living Bird 18 (1980): 113-60.
Fry, C.H. "The Origin of Afrotropical Kingfishers." Ibis 122 (1980): 57-64.
Woodall, P.F. "Morphometry, Diet and Habitat in the
Kingfishers (Aves: Alcedinidae)." Journal of Zoology, London 233, no. 1 (1991): 79-90.
Coraciiformes Taxon Advisory Group. <http://www .coraciiformestag.com>.
Alan C. Kemp, PhD
Class Aves Order Coraciiformes Suborder Alcedines Family Todidae
Very small, rather plump kingfisher-like birds with long, somewhat flattened red bills, crimson gorget, stubby tail, shining green wings, and dorsal plumage
Number of genera, species
1 genus; 5 species
Tropical forests and woodlands, primary and secondary, ranging from arid lowlands to lushly forested highlands
Not threatened; locally common, although in 2001 population densities decreasing due to habitat destruction.
Was this article helpful?