This widespread species is locally common in many areas but has suffered obvious losses, especially at the edges of its range. In Europe, the hoopoe's range has been contracting since the late nineteenth century, with an especially strong decline since 1955-60. This decline is often attributed to climatic change, but may be due more to changes in farming practices and land use. In 2001, its European population was estimated at 700,000-900,000, with five to 10 million birds worldwide.
In Africa, Madagascar, and Asia desertification and habitat loss through high-intensity farming practices have adversely affected the hoopoe's numbers. Migrants are still persecuted by hunters in southern Europe and parts of Asia.
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