Collared kingfisher

Todiramphus chloris

SUBFAMILY Halcyoninae

TAXONOMY

Alcedo chloris Boddaert, 1783, Buru. Exact taxonomy incomplete, at least 49 subspecies described.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Black-masked/white-collared kingfisher; French: Martin-chasseur a collier blanc; German: Halsbandliest; Spanish: Alcion Acollarado.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

9-10 in (23-25 cm), 1.8-3.5 oz (51-100 g). Small kingfisher, generally blue-green above, white or buff below and on collar. Mask, feet and bill black, latter with yellow base. Much local variation across wide, fragmented, and insular range, mainly in intensity of colors and of white or rufous on head.

DISTRIBUTION

Red Sea east to China, Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, and many adjacent oceanic islands, reaching An-damans, Marianas, Fiji, and Tonga, among others.

HABITAT

Mainly coastal in mangroves and estuaries, but extends inland along major rivers and into adjacent forests and croplands. Widest habitat tolerance on some islands, up to 4,900 ft (1,500 m) above sea level on Java and Sumatra.

BEHAVIOR

Calls with two to five shrill notes from perch or in flight. Perches for long periods in the open, usually below 9 ft (3 m). Nocturnal migrant in some areas.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Dives from perch to ground, mud, or into water after prey. Eats wide range of small animals, along coasts mainly fish and crustacea, inland includes more insects in diet. Known to follow otters for any prey they might disturb.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Lays two to five eggs in cavity excavated by both members of monogamous pair in dead wood, earth bank, arboreal termitar-ium or even fern roots, less often natural tree hole or old woodpecker nest. Incubation about 14 days, nestling period 29-30 days.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. Wide distribution, common or even abundant in many areas, range extends into areas of cultivation. Suffers from local habitat destruction in some areas, especially on small islands with distinctive subspecies.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

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    How to feed the white collared kingfisher?
    7 years ago

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