Brown dipper

Cinclus pallasii

TAXONOMY

Cinclus pallasii Temminck, 1820, "Crimea," actually Okhota River, eastern Siberia.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Asian dipper, Pallas's dipper; French: Cincle de Pallas; German: Flusswasseramsel; Spanish: Mirlo Aquático Castaño.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

8.3-9.1 in (21-23 cm); weight (sexes not distinguished) 2.3-3.1 oz (66-88 g). Plumage uniformly dark brown.

DISTRIBUTION

Central Asia from Afghanistan, Kazakhstan to Tibet, Nepal, North Burma, North Vietnam; disjunctly northern India,

Siberia to Kamchatka, Japan from Kyushu northwards. Over most of its range largely sedentary, in some cases moves to lower altitudes in winter; some apparent migration from northern edge of range in China.

HABITAT

Rushing mountain streams and shores of mountain lakes. BEHAVIOR

Much as other members of the genus; spends all of its time in close proximity to fast-flowing water, diving and swimming down to the bed. Bobs and curtsies in a manner similar to the Eurasian species. Song is a loud bubbling warble; call a sharp "zit-zit."

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Aquatic invertebrates, caddis fly and may fly larvae, etc., taken mostly underwater.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Nest is spherical with a side entrance, the outer layer of moss, the inner of rootlets and leaf-webs, usually located in crevices in rock faces above flowing water; more rarely in artificial sites such as bridges. Both sexes build. Eggs three to six, usually five, incubation period 19-20 days, fledging period 23-24 days. Probably mostly single-brooded.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. Widespread and common; susceptible to habitat degradation, but much of its range has very sparse human habitation.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

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