Barethroated bellbird

Procnias nudicollis

TAXONOMY

Procnias nudicollis Vieillot, 1817. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Naked-throated bird; French: Araponga a gorge nue; German: Nacktkehlglöckner; Spanish: Campanero de Garganta Desnuda.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

The bellbirds are distinguished by compact bodies, flat beaks, short tarsi and a plumage of small feathers. Male bellbirds have among the loudest calls of any birds. This species accomplishes this by having a very muscular syrinx, and filling the interclavicular air sacs. Males also differ from the females in their plumage coloration. The male is white, and is distinguished by bare wattles and a bare, inflatable throat skin of greenish color. Females are predominantly green, and somewhat smaller.

DISTRIBUTION

This species is found in the Atlantic rainforest belt of central Brazil through eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, ranging up to 3,370 ft (1,150 m).

HABITAT

Bellbirds live in tropical lowland or montane evergreen rainforest. They prefer high perches in the canopy, often on bare tree branches, which project above the crowns of surrounding trees.

BEHAVIOR

The far-reaching bell-like calls (often described as "bockk") of the males characterize their jungle home. Male bellbirds defend perches jealously against rivals, including other species of cotingas on occasion. For example, a bare-throated bellbird displaced a female white-winged cotinga Xipholena atropurpurea from a tree. While the species appears to be migratory in at least some regions, this apparently varies among populations. For example, the species appears to migrate in southeastern Brazil, be transient in northeastern Argentina, and resident in Paraguay.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

These birds feed on fruit. The short bills with a wide gape are adaptations for gorging on quantities of fruit, such as (Rapanea ferruginea). This species has also been observed eating in a Ce-cropia tree.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

This species builds a shallow nest that is approximately 6.3 in (16 cm) across. The nest is made of very little construction material, and is built on open branches. One or two eggs are laid per clutch; the eggs are oval and reddish brown, with dark spots at the rounder end. Female cellbirds care for the young alone, regurgitating fruit and cleaning the nest of fecal sacks and regurgitated seeds.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Near Threatened due to habitat fragmentation, development such as road building, and exploitation for the cage bird trade (especially in Brazil) being the main factors. The fragmentation is primarily due to agrarian conversion and deforestation for mining concessions. In all likelihood this species is declining

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ‚ô¶

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