Omei Shan liocichla

Emei, Sichuan. Only recently recognized as full species, distinct from Taiwanese endemic Steere's babbler (L. steerii). English Mount Omei babbler French Garrulaxe de l'Omei German Omei-Haeherling. 7 in (17 cm). Gray with bright reddish orange pattern on wings, squared-off, red-tipped tail, red-and-black vent, yellowish ear coverts, dark eyes and bill. The vicinity of Mt. Emei, southern Sichuan and northeastern Yunnan. Mountain forests with bamboo stands....

Significance to humans

The highly insectivorous ioras are recognized as a form of natural pest control. The value of leafbirds as pollinators of flowering trees can certainly not be overlooked, though this may be balanced against their spreading the seeds of the parasitic oriental mistletoe from one tree to another. Appreciation for the beauty of members of the genus Chloropsis is centuries old. Leafbirds have appeared in Chinese art as early as the fifteenth century. The London Zoo obtained an orange-bellied...

Anteater chat

Myrmecocichla aethiops Cabanis, 1850, Senegal. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Northern anteater chat French Traquet brun German Ameisenschmatzer Spanish Hormiguero. 7.1 in (18 cm) male 1.8-2.3 oz (51-66 g) female 1.7-2.0 oz (47-58 g). Dark, sooty-brown plumage with black bill and legs. White wing patches are conspicous during flight. Narrow band across Africa south of Sahara from Senegal to Sudan, locally southern Kenya and extreme northern Tanzania. Open grassy ground with termite mounds and...

Spragues pipit

Alauda spragueii Audubon, 1844, North Dakota. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Pipit de Sprague German Pr riepieper Spanish Bisbita Llanera. 6.3-7 in (16-18 cm) 0.8-1 oz (22-29 g). Pale buff face olive-tan upperparts streaked with buff and black buff to whitish underparts with dark streaking white outer tail feathers. Dark eyes thin pale bill creamy pink to yellowish legs and feet. Plumage camouflages the bird in prairie grasses. Breeds in south central Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, British...

Resources

Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain, and Cambridge, UK Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, 2000. Ridgely, R. S., and G. Tudor. The Birds of South America. Vol. II, The Suboscine Passerines. Austin University of Texas Press. 1994. BirdLife International. Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0NA United Kingdom. Phone +44-1-223-277-318. Fax +44-1-223-277-200. E-mail birdlife birdlife.org.uk Web site < http www .birdlife.net>...

Reproductive biology

Accentors construct an open, cup-shaped nest of plant fibers, mosses, and feathers. The nest is built in a hollow in the ground, in a crevice among rocks, or in low scrub as high as about 6 ft (2 m) above the ground. The breeding season lasts from late March to August, but this varies among species and latitude. Accentors lay a clutch of three to six A dunnock (Prunella modularis) feeding its chicks in the nest. (Photo by D. Hadden VIREO. Reproduced by permission.) A dunnock (Prunella...

Physical characteristics

Cuckoo-shrikes are small- to medium-sized birds. The bill is broad at the base, notched and slightly hooked, and rictal bristles are well developed. The wings are rather long and pointed, and the tail is moderately long, rounded or graduated. In most genera the back and rump feathers have very stiff shafts and soft tips, and are partially erectile. These spine-like feathers are easily shed and may act as a means of defense. The minivets are a distinctive group. Most species have brilliantly...

Ocellated tapaculo

Merulaxis orthonyx Lafresnaye, 1843, Colombia. OTHER COMMON NAMES French M rulaxe ocell German Perlenmanteltapaculo Spanish Churrin Ocelado. 8.5 in (21.5 cm) 2.9-3.5 oz (81-100 g). Hindclaw very long and straight. Bill elevated at base. Mainly black with large white spots. Rump and flanks chestnut. Forehead, face, throat and upper breast rufous. A. o. orthonyx Andes of northwest Venezuela, and eastern and central chains of Colombia. A. o. infuscata Andes of Ecuador and northern Peru. Mainly...

Evolution and systematics

Although common throughout much of their range, rollers are poorly known. This scarcity of information is reflected in a sketchy understanding of their evolutionary history. The present predominantly Afrotropical distribution suggests that they originated in ancient Africa, but in The Origin and Evolution of Birds (1999), Alan Feduccia points out that the few fossils identified confidently as belonging to the family come from Europe. Dating from the late Eocene and Oligocene (35 million years...

Conservation status

Of the 383 piciform species, a total of 15 species are classified as Critically Endangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable. An additional 28 species are classified as Near Threatened. All of the most-threatened species show downward population trends. All three species listed as Critically Endangered are large woodpeckers the imperial woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis), the Okinawa woodpecker (Sapheopipo noguchii), and the ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilusprincipalis). (Classification as...

Calandra lark

Alauda calandra Linnaeus, 1766, Pyrenees. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Alouette calandre German Kalanderlerche Spanish Calandria Com n. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 7.1-7.5 in (18-19 cm) male 2.0-2.6 oz (57-73 g) female 1.8-2.2 oz (50-65 g) larger and stronger than skylark. Bill conical and heavy. Upperparts brown and streaked, black patches on each side of upper breast characteristic. Sexes alike. North Africa, southern Europe east to Ural steppes, from Asia Minor to central Asia, missing between...

Cactus wren

Picocolaptes brunneicapillus Lafresnaye 1835, Guaymas, Mexico. Eight subspecies recognized. French Troglodyte des cactus German Kaktuszaunk nig Spanish Matraca Des rtica. 7.2-7.6 in (18-19 cm) 1.2-1.6 oz, mean 1.4 oz (33.4-46.9 g, mean 38.9 g). The largest species of wren in the United States. The bird is chocolate-brown above, with a plain cap. The back is heavily streaked with black and white, the wings prominently barred with buff and blackish, the tail feathers with alternating blackish...

Brown trembler

Three subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Brown bird, gray trembler, (Caribbean) trembling thrush French Trembleur brun German Zitterdrossel Spanish Temblador Casta o. 9-10 in (23-25.5 m) 1.8 oz (50 g) (average). Upperparts dark olivaceous-brown, with blackish brown crown and rufescent rump. Underparts dull gray-brown, becoming orange-brown on belly. Eyes light yellow. Bill long, slender and decurved, black legs brown. Females have longer bill than males...

Bohemian waxwing

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Waxwing French Jaseur bor al German Seidenschwanz Spanish Ampelis Europeo. 6.7-8.3 in (17-21 cm), wingspan 14.5 in (37 cm), 2 oz (56 g). Larger and slightly shorter-tailed than the cedar waxwing, appears small-headed and round-bodied. Sleek, crested bird, overall plumage grayish with rusty tinge on forehead and cheeks. Black eye-mask and chin patch, white edge between eye-patch and chin, little to no white on forehead. Undertail...

Blackspotted barbet

Fifteen subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Cab zon tachet German Tupfenbartvogel Spanish Chaboclo Turero. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 7.1-7.5 in (18-19 cm) 0.8-0.9 oz (22-25 g) West Colombia to Venezuela, the Guianas, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and east through Brazil north of the Amazon, but restricted to a small area south of that river. Mostly in mature, lowland forest, both dry and wet floodplain forests also upland forest, forest edge, gardens, orchards,...

Behavior

Noted ornithologist John Gould wrote that, of all the birds he had ever met, the superb lyrebird was by far the shyest and most difficult to stalk. Albert's lyrebird is even more wary, and so has been little studied. Observations of a population of superb lyrebirds that have largely lost their fear of people (in Sherbrooke Forest, Victoria, Australia) have provided much of what is known of lyrebird behavior. Lyrebirds are sedentary, though individuals may wander away from their defended...

Whitebrowed robin chat

Cossypha heuglini Hartlaub, 1866, Sudan. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Heuglin's robin French Cossyphe de Heuglin German Weissbrauenr tel. 7.9 in (20 cm) male 1.1-1.6 oz (30-44 g) female 1.0-1.3 oz (29-36 g). Brownish upperparts with black head and white brow from bill to nape. Orange throat, neck collar, and under-parts. Africa south of Sahara, chiefly southerb Sudan through East Africa, Central Africa west to Angola and south to northeastern South Africa and Mozambique. Riverside forest and...

Ivorybilled woodpecker

Picus principalis Linnaeus, 1758, based on Mark Catesby's drawing of the Largest White-bill Woodpecker from South Carolina. Two subspecies recognized. French Pic a bec ivoire German Elfelbeinspecht Spanish Carpintero Real. 18.5-21 in (47-54 cm) 15.5-18.3 oz (440-570 g). A very large, black woodpecker with white lines extending down the neck on each side to the upper base of the wing, white secondaries and inner primaries, a very robust, chisel-tipped, ivory-colored bill male has a pointed crest...

Black redstart

Phoenicurus ochruros Gmelin, 1774, Iran. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Rougequeue nior German Hausrotschwanz Spanish Colirrojo Tizon. 5.5 in (14 cm) 0.5-0.7 oz (13-20 g). Black head and upperparts with dark gray forehead and reddish tail. Throat is black un-derparts are rufous. In females, plumage is brown. Widespread in Europe north to Baltic Sea, Middle East, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, coast of Libya, Egypt, and Red Sea coasts, Iran, and Afghanistan. Cliffs and rocky outcrops from sea level to...

Brown thrasher

Turdus rufus Linnaeus, 1758, Carolina. Two subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Moqueur roux German Rotrucken-Spottdrossel Spanish Cuitlacoche Rojizo. 10-11 in (25.5-28 cm) 2-3.2 oz (57.6-89 g) Upperparts deep rufous-brown, two whitish wing-bars on covert edges, underparts buffy-white with conspicuous blackish tear-drop shaped markings, eye yellow, bill brownish with flesh-colored base, legs brownish. T. r .rufum breeds in eastern North America from New Brunswick and Maine south to Florida and...

Whiskered yuhina

Yuhina flavicollis Hodgson, 1836, central Nepal. Seven subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Yellow-naped yuhina, yellow-collared ixulus French Yuhina a cou roux German Gelbnackenyuhina. 5 in (13 cm). Like other nine members of the genus, a compact, quietly colored bird with small, pointed bill and short, but well-defined, crest. Distinguished by combination of black malar stripe (moustache) and white streaking on brown flanks. Wings, mantle, and tail dark brown. Chest and throat white. Back...

Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania. Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of M nster M nster, Germany...

Species accounts

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Bamboo antshrike French Batara fasci German Zebra-Ameisenw rger Spanish Batar Franjeado. 7 in (17-18 cm) heavy hooked bill and red iris. Southern Central America and north-central South America from Honduras to Panama, and in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia, and western Amazonian Brazil. Typically below 3,300 ft (1,000 m) in humid tropical forest vine-tangled and shrubby borders of streams and...

Feeding ecology and diet

Barbets are fruit eaters, but their growing chicks require high protein diets and are fed almost exclusively insects. Barbets have an important role in seed dispersal (although some species regurgitate pellets of undigested seeds from fruit, and then eat them again). In dense forest, there would be little chance of a seed being carried far by wind, or rolling more than several feet along the ground. To get far beyond the parent tree, it is best eaten by a barbet and ejected in a neat package of...

For further reading

Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. 2nd edition. 10 Vols. New York Oxford University Press, 1978-1999. American Ornithologists' Union. Check-list of North American Birds the Species of Birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands. 7th ed. Washington, DC The American Ornithologists' Union, 1998. Bennett, Peter M. and I. P. F. Owens. Evolutionary Ecology of Birds Life Histories, Mating Systems, and...

Western wattled cuckooshrike

Ceblepyris lobatus Temminck, 1824, Gold Coast (Ghana). OTHER COMMON NAMES English Ghana cuckoo-shrike French Echenilleur a barbillons German Westlicher lappenraupenfresser Spanish Oruguero Occidental. 8.3 in (21 cm) 1.0-1.3 oz (29-37 g). Male has glossy black head and black bill with orange wattles on gape. Breast and flanks orange-yellow, wings greenish yellow. Female slightly duller with greenish forehead and crown. East Sierra Leone, Liberia, west Cote d'lvoire, south Ghana, one record in...

Suborders Tyranni and Passeri

In spite of the many confusing relationships within the order, there is still a great deal of information that is known about the phylogeny of passerines. The two broadly defined suborders, oscine and suboscines, are rather easily separated, primarily on the basis of differences in the architecture of the syrinx, the special structure that birds use to produce sound. In oscines, the so-called songbirds, there are more than three pairs of intrinsic syringeal muscles, while the more primitive...

Olive thrush

Turdus olivaceus Linnaeus, 1766, Cape of Good Hope. OTHER COMMON NAMES English African thrush, West African thrush French Grive oliv tre German Kapdrossel Spanish Zorzal olivo. 8.3-9.4 in (21-24 cm) 1.9-2.9 oz (54-81 g). Dull olive-brown upperparts and tail, with orange underparts and white vent. Throat is speckled white. Bill and legs are yellow-orange. Africa, from Eritrea and Ethiopia discontinuously south to the Cape, west to Angola. Upland and lowland forest, gardens, and hotel grounds....

Bennetts woodpecker

Smith, 1836, western Transvaal, South Africa. Two races recognized. English Specklethroated woodpecker, Reichenow's woodpecker French Pic de Bennett German Bennettsspecht Spanish Pico de Bennett. About 9.5 in (24 cm) 2.2-3 oz (61-84 g). A small, brownish yellow woodpecker with heavy spotting on underparts male has a red forehead to the nape, a red moustache, and white ear coverts female has a red nape, black-and-white mottled forehead, brown throat and ear coverts, a...

Behavior Of Brubru Bird

Bush-shrikes are generally seen singly or in pairs, but small parties, probably family groups, have been recorded. They appear to be monogamous and territorial, but very little is known about the social organization of many species, as their tendency to keep to thick cover makes them difficult to observe. One of the easiest to spot is the beautiful, long-tailed, rosy-patched shrike (Tchagra cruentus), which lives in dry bush areas in eastern Africa. Its noisy family groups are constantly...

Silverbreasted broadbill

Eurylaimus lunatus Gould, 1833 (1834), near Rangoon. Eight subspecies recognized. English Gould's broadbill, collared broadbill, Hodgson's broadbill French Eurylaime du Gould German W rgerbreitrachen Spanish Pico Ancho de Pecho Plateado. 6.3-6.7 in (16-17 cm) 0.9-1.2 oz (25-35 g). Grayish head with black behind eyes. Whitish breast and wingtips. Wings alternate black and blue with some rusty color. Back is light gray, turning to dark rust colored at rump and black on the tail. 5. l. lunatus...

Eastern bluebird

OTHER COMMON NAMES French Merlebleu de l'est German Rotkehl-Huttensanger Spanish Azulejo. 7.1 in (18 cm) 1.1 oz (31 g). Males have bright blue upperparts reddish brown chin, throat, breast, sides, and flanks and a white belly and undertail coverts. Females have gray upperparts blue wings, rump, and tail and paler chestnut where the male is reddish brown. Juveniles have gray-brown upperparts with white spotting on the back, a brownish chest with white scalloping,...

Pittas

Indian Pitta Cage

5.9-11.0 in 15-28 cm 1.6-7.1 oz 45-202 g Primarily southeastern Asia, including Indonesia, China, Japan, and India Australia West and East Africa Primarily southeastern Asia, including Indonesia, China, Japan, and India Australia West and East Africa Original taxonomic treatments of the pittas led to their inclusion in the crow family, and subsequently in the thrush family. It was not until the early 1800s that the pittas were designated as a distinct family and correctly classified as...

Olivesided flycatcher

Monotypic. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Boreal peewee French Moucherolle c t s olive German Fichtentyrann Spanish Pibi Boreal. 7.5 in 19 cm . Stout flycatcher with a large head, short neck, and short tail. Plumage includes brownish olive upperparts, head, crest, and wings and dull white throat, center breast strip, belly, and undertail coverts. Bill is large and mostly black, with a dull orange lower mandible. Breeding regions include Alaska, most of Canada, the...

Common kingfisher

Gracula atthis Linnaeus, 1758, Egypt. Seven subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English European Eurasian kingfisher French Martin-p cheur d'Europe German Eisvogel Spanish Martin Pescador Com n. 6 in 16 cm , 0.7-1.6 oz 20-46 g . Small kingfisher, typical of genus, blue-green above, rufous below and on cheeks and forehead, white throat and spot on neck. Bill black male or red below female , feet red. Resident across mainland Europe, northern Africa, Asia, New Guinea and adjacent islands, breeding...

Systematics

The order Coraciiformes includes many species that represent some of the most colorful and unusual bird families in the world. The order is named after the rollers of the family Coraciidae, whose members have the least specialized or most basic design within the order. While each family within the Coraciiformes can be defined rather clearly, relationships between the families and which families to include in the order are more difficult to ascertain. This also means that the exact criteria for...

Northern flicker

Gilded Flicker Woodpecker

Colaptes auratus Linnaeus, 1758, based on the drawing of the golden-winged wood-pecker by Mark Catesby. Has at times been separated into red-shafted C. cafer and yellow-shafted species C. auratus , but considerable hybridization occurs in the North American Great Plains. Four major racial groups including nine races are recognized. The gilded flicker C. chrysoides is sometimes considered as another race of the northern flicker. English Common flicker, yellow-shafted flicker, red-shafted...

Rufous woodpecker

Rufous Woodpecker

Nine subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Pic brun German Rostspecht Spanish Carpintero Rufo. 8.3-9.8 in 21-25 cm , 1.9-4.0 oz 55-114 g a reddish brown woodpecker with black barring on rufous back, wings, tail, and flanks reddish eye male with a red cheek, female without juveniles like adults but sometimes more, sometimes less barring. Southeast Asia from southwest India and Sri Lanka to Nepal, southern China, Hainan, Borneo, Sumatra, and Java several disjunct...

Lilaccheeked kingfisher

Dacelo cyanotis Temminck, 1824, Sulawesi Sumatra in error . Three subspecies. English Blue-eared, lilac kingfisher French Martin-chasseur oreillard German Blauohrliest Spanish Martin Cazador de C lebes. 11 in 28 cm , no mass data. Large kingfisher with unique, spiky, lilac ear coverts, brown above, lilac and white below with black male or blue female shoulder to dark wings. Black mask, bright red bill and feet. Red iris distinctive. Swoops down to capture prey on ground, mainly large insects,...

Cuban tody

Todus multicolor John Gould, 1837, Cuba. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Todier de Cuba German Vielfarbentodi Spanish Barrancoli Cubano. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 4.3 in 10.8 cm , wing chord 1.7 in 4.4 cm , estimated weight 0.21-0.23 oz 6-6.5 g . Most brilliantly colored tody, with smallest bill. Rosy flanks, yellow undertail coverts. Sky-blue cheek patch and wrists yellow base of bill, whitish belly. Yellow-green, almost iridescent eyebrow. Cuba, including Isle of Pines Isle of Youth and larger cays...

Collared kingfisher

Exact taxonomy incomplete, at least 49 subspecies described. English Black-masked white-collared kingfisher French Martin-chasseur a collier blanc German Halsbandliest Spanish Alcion Acollarado. 9-10 in 23-25 cm , 1.8-3.5 oz 51-100 g . Small kingfisher, generally blue-green above, white or buff below and on collar. Mask, feet and bill black, latter with yellow base. Much local variation across wide, fragmented, and insular range, mainly in intensity of...

Common paradise kingfisher

Manokwari Nieuw Guinea

Gray, 1859, Manokwari, New Guinea. At least 15 subspecies, some elevated to species. English Galatea racquet-tail French Martin-chasseur a longs brins German Spatelliest Spanish Alci n Colilargo Com n. 13-17 in 33-43 cm , 1.9-2.4 oz 55-69 g . Spectacular medium-sized kingfisher, dark blue above, white below with shining blue crown, red bill and long blue central tail feathers with white racquets at the tip. New Guinea, west to main islands of Halmahera and Buru in...

Puerto Rican tody

Todus mexicanus Lesson, 1838, Tampico and Vera Cruz, Mexico. Clearly an error todies do not occur in Mexico. French Todier de Puerto Rico German Gelbflankentodi Spanish Barrancol Puertorrique o. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 4.4 in 11 cm , wing chord 1.7 in 4.3 cm , weight male 0.22 oz 6.3 g , female 0.21 oz 5.9 g . The least colorful, smallest tody. Flanks yellow, no pink, no blue cheek patch, belly whitish. Sexual dimorphism in eye color slate males , white females . Juveniles have four maturation...

Bluecrowned motmot

Ramphastos momota Linnaeus, 1766, Cayenne. Twenty subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Lesson's motmot, Caribbean motmot, tawny-bellied motmot, blue-diademed motmot French Motmot houtouc German Blauscheitelmotmot Spanish Momoto Com n. 2.7-5.2 oz 77-148 g 15-17 in 38-44 cm . Black crown bordered with violet and turquoise. Black mask with turquoise above and below. Back of neck is rufous, back is green. Greenish underparts and black spot s on chest. Widest distribution of any motmot,...

Rufouscollared kingfisher

Dacelo concreta Temminck, 1825, Sumatra. Three subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Chestnut-collared kingfisher French Martin-chasseur trapu German Malaienliest Spanish Alcion Malayo. 9-9.5 in 23-24 cm , 2.1-3.2 oz 60-90 g . Dumpy, medium-sized kingfisher, with green crown, blue male , or buff-spotted green female back, rufous below and on collar. Bill black above and yellow below. Sunda region of Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra. HABITAT Dense lowland rainforest, even secondary forest...