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Only rarely near the text (if any) that referred to them. In this digital edition, all of the photographs appear in their own section at the end. The original text does not specifically refer to the photographs by number this edition does, where such references can be identified. The references appear like this ia . The reference is a hyperlink click on it to jump to the referenced photograph (use the back button to return). The photographic images are presented in a slightly larger size than in the original, and the notes below them have been copied from the Table of Photographs. The images have been digitally enhanced to bring out what details were available. Because of the limitations of the photographic and printing technology available in 1913, the quality of the printed images is poor, a problem digital enhancement cannot entirely correct. All images in the printed edition are included here, and none of the images have been cropped or had their content altered. Note If this copy...
Though the architectural diversity of the passerine nest certainly may have contributed to the enormous radiation of the order, nest site selection has played an equally important role. That many species are opportunistic in site selection probably has increased species survival. The wren family (Troglodyti-dae) illustrates both the diversity of nest types as well as the variety of sites. Cactus wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapittus) bury their football-shaped globular nests deep inside the thorns of cacti to discourage predators. Rock wrens (Salpinctes obsole-tus) build their nest in holes in the ground, the crevices of rocky outcrops, or similar small shelters. Nests are usually cup-shaped structures, made of grasses, rootlets, or bark, and lined with finer materials like animal hair or spider webs. House wrens (Troglodytes aedon) also make small, cup-shaped nests, but evidence of their creativity in site selection appears in photographs showing a house wren nest tucked inside an...
In addition, a male reported at Swithland Reservoir on November 21st 1981 and again in April and May 1982 was later identified from photographs as a hybrid between White-headed Duck and Ruddy Duck this was presumably the bird that had been reported earlier in 1981 in Somerset and Staffordshire (BB 75 143), and was perhaps the offspring of one of the birds which escaped from Slimbridge in 1977.
The earliest fossil Alcidae come from North American deposits, which may indicate that the early evolution of these birds was restricted to the northern Pacific, where most extant species of auks occur (Olson 1985). Hydrotherikornis oregonus Miller, 1931 from the late Eocene of Oregon is based on a distal tibiotarsus. This specimen was assumed to possibly be from a procellariiform bird by Warheit (2002), but Chandler and Parmley (2003) reported a distal end of an alcid humerus from the late Eocene of Georgia, which further substantiates the presence of auks in the late Eocene of North America. There is no unambiguous Paleogene fossil record of auks outside North America. A partial skeleton from late Oligocene (MP 30 Mlikovsky 2002) marine deposits of Austria was described as Petralca austriaca by Mlikovsky and Kovar (1987), who assigned it to the Alcidae, within a new subtaxon Petralcinae. The authors did not detail the reasons for their identification of the fossil, and on the basis...
Fork-tailed Flycatchers, elegant creatures belonging in southeastern Mexico and Central and South America, have appeared somewhere in the United States or Canada every year since 1970, usually in autumn. Sightings are as unexpected, and almost as unbelievable, as apparitions of Elvis. Three times Frank Freese saw one on his Columbia County property in mid-November 1978. He brought ornithologists to the spot, but the bird appeared for Frank alone. Fortunately, his photographs were more convincing than tabloid photos of Elvis in a laundromat, and his sighting became the first official Wisconsin record. Another forktail appeared before Robbye Johnson and Bill Penning in Douglas County on June 24, 1988, vanishing before other birders could arrive. The American Birding Association met in Duluth days later, but the bird had disappeared forever.
Interest in the Ashby-de-la-Zouch individual was rekindled in the late 1990s, following the decision by the BOURC to grant Hume's Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus humei full species status from Yellow-browed Warbler. Although the overall plumage of the bird was rather dull and the median covert wingbar was virtually absent, examination of photographs and a video recording supported the identification as a Yellow-browed Warbler (Fray & Harrop 2000). It was therefore something of a surprise when the BBRC, out of the blue, accepted this bird as a Hume's (BB 91 507), but they were asked to reconsider their decision and finally came to the conclusion that the bird was, indeed, a Yellow-browed Warbler (BB 94 493).
72, Pliny 19.52, Seneca Dialogues 12.10.2-3, Statius Silvae 1.6.75-78, 2.4.27, Juvenal 11.139). Apicius (2.49, 54) gives recipes for Pheasant rissoles, Paulus of Aegina (1.83) praises the eggs. Despite its familiarity, however, ancient information about the Pheasant isn't always reliable. Pliny (HN 10.132, 11.121) acutely observes the two feathered ears or horns that a Pheasant can raise and droop, and Aelian (HN 16.2) mentions the red wattle neither adds that these are found only on the male. Aristotle (HA 633a30- b2 cf. Theophrastus fr. 371 Fortenbaugh) says the bird stays on the ground, doesn't fly and takes dust baths to get rid of lice (cf. HA 557a11-13). In fact, the bird can fly short distances, though it does prefer running, and dust bathing is practised throughout life. Elsewhere (HA 559a24-25) Aristotle claims that Pheasants lay spotted eggs, which according to Pliny (HN 10.144) are red. Modern observations confirm that the eggs of wild and game birds are uniformly...
Although the Leicestershire and Rutland Ornithological Society (LROS) published Annual Reports from 1941 onwards, the next book to describe the local avifauna was Otter's ' The Birds of East Leicestershire', published in 1965. A major milestone, and the most influential statement since Browne, was reached in 1978, when Hickling published his 'Birds in Leicestershire and Rutland' on behalf of the LROS. The book's 199 pages included chapters on birds in the landscape, articles reprinted from LROS Annual Reports, four maps, 11 illustrations, 39 black-and-white photographs of habitats and a table of the arrival dates of migrants, as well as a
We are very grateful to all the photographers whose work is contained within this book Tim Appleton, Carl Baggott, Adey Baker, Gary Bellingham, Dr. Brown, Jim Eaton, Pete Farbridge, Jim Graham, Danny Green, John Harriman, Andrew Harrop, Iain Leach, Brian Moore, Frank Pickering, Nigel Spencer, Keith Stone, Stephen Walton, John Wright and Steve Young. Carl Baggott provided assistance in putting together the selection of photographs. Andy Mackay and John Wright provided the illustrations, and Andy also produced the cover artwork. The maps of geology and surface deposits are reproduced with permission from Alan Strachan's 'Atlas of Leicestershire' (1985).
Am ther important feature that varies from bird to bird is the feet. Just like the beaks and eyes, the feet are adapted to aid with certain jobs and behaviors. Study the examples here, and you can see how similar, yet how different each type of foot appears. Refer back to the photographs of the rhea and the flamingo on page 27. The rhea has much thicker legs and has larger feet designed for running. The flamingo has slender legs and webbed feet designed for walking and swimming in water.
There have been two records of shrikes which have never been satisfactorily identified. In 1944, one was at Rowley Fields, Leicester from September 1st to 11th it was seen and photographed by a number of observers, who considered it to be a Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor. All available evidence was submitted to Bernard Tucker, then the editor of British Birds, who had no doubt the bird was a Great Grey Shrike. Unfortunately, none of the photographs taken can now be traced and given the date (over a month earlier than any other Great Grey Shrike recorded in the counties and at a far more likely time of year for the Lesser Grey Shrike) there must be some element of doubt as to the identity of this bird.
100 Photography Tips
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