Slatybellied tesia

Tesia olivea

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Little known. Pairs frequently observed.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

SUBFAMILY

Sylviinae

TAXONOMY

Tesia olivea McClelland, 1840. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Slaty-bellied ground warbler; French: Té à ventre ardoise; German: Goldscheiteltesia; Spanish: Trinador de Vientre Pizarro.

Cetti's warbler

Cettia cetti

SUBFAMILY

Sylviinae

TAXONOMY

Cettia cetti Temminck, 1820.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Bouscarle de Cetti; German: Seidensanger; Spanish: Ruiseñor Bastardo de Cetti.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

5.3-5.7 in (13.5-14.5 cm); 0.4-0.6 oz (10-18g) (males), 0.3-0.6 oz (8-16g) (females). Medium-sized, plump warbler with long, graduated, rounded tail with 10 rectrices; short, rounded wings; and a delicate, dark bill. Strongly sexually dimorphic, as measured by wing length and mass. Upperparts dull chestnut to rufous, throat white, breast grayish, and belly and flanks buffy. Characteristic thin, whitish supercilium and eye ring.

DISTRIBUTION

Distribution across Eurasia. In summer, north into Caucasus region of Russia and Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakstan. Winters along the Indus River in Pakistan. Eastern race (albiventris) migrates to south to Pakistan and Afghanistan.

HABITAT

Lowlands, usually near water, in dense thickets and reedbeds. BEHAVIOR

Skulking. Male territorial song is an explosive series of clear tones. A softer variant is used during courtship. Male song pattern is unique allowing individual recognition. Males aggressively territorial, defending with song, wing-waving display and fighting. In sedentary populations, territories defended all year.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages on or near the ground for insects (especially aquatic invertebrates), spiders, harvestmen, snails, earthworms, and some seeds.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Often serially polygynous. Male may mate with the same 1-4 females for several successive years. Nest is loose cup of stems and leaves, placed low among tangled vegetation. The nest of each female is placed in her 'range' within the male territory. The 4-5 eggs are incubated by the female. Fledging occurs at 14-16 days, young remain dependent for additional 15 or more days.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

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