Resources

Books

Cicero, C. "Oak Titmouse (Baeolophus inornatus) and Juniper Titmouse (Baeolophus ridgwayi)." In The Birds of North America. No. 485, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia: The Birds of North America, Inc., 2000.

Cramp, S., and C. M. Perrins, eds. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. VII. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Ficken, M., and J. Nocedal. "Mexican Chickadee." In The Birds of North America, No. 8, edited by A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill. Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists' Union, 1992.

Ficken, M., M. A. McLaren, and J. P. Hailman. "Boreal

Chickadee (Parus hudsonicus)." In The Birds of North America, No. 254, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists' Union, 1996.

Hailman, J. P., and S. Haftorn. "Siberian Tit (Parus cinctus)." In The Birds of North America, No. 196, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists' Union, 1995.

in parts of range. Very localized distribution outside of the Himalayas, including coniferous forests in China.

BEHAVIOR

Resident, but undertakes seasonal altitudinal movements, generally moving to lower elevations outside of the breeding season. Territoriality not understood, but joins mixed-species flocks outside of the breeding season like most other tits. Has a wide variety of calls.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Forages throughout the canopy and occasionally in scrub beneath the tree canopy. Described as both acrobatic and restless while foraging. Diet mainly invertebrates, but also takes some seeds.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Poorly understood. Nests in natural cavities in trees. Breeds April through May. Clutch size four to six eggs, but no information on incubation and nestling periods.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. A common species, but with fragmented and highly localized distribution outside of the Himalayas.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Harrap, S., and D. Quinn. Tits, Nuthatches and Treecreepers. London, U.K.: Christopher Helm, 1996.

McCallum, D. A., R. Grundel, and D. L. Dahlsten. "Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli)." In The Birds of North America, No. 453, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia: The Birds of North America, Inc., 1999.

Nocedal, J., and M. S. Ficken. "Bridled Titmouse (Baeolophus wollweberi))." In The Birds of North America, No. 375, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1998.

Sibley, C. G., and B. L. Monroe, Jr. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1990.

Smith, S. M. "Black-capped Chickadee." In The Birds of North America, No. 39, edited by A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill. Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists' Union, 1993.

Tucker, G. M., and M. F. Heath. Birds in Europe: Their

Conservation Status. Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series no. 3), 1994.

Helen Baker, PhD

Nuthatches and wall creepers

(Sittidae)

Class Aves Order Passeriformes Suborder Passeri (Oscines) Family Sittidae

Small, large-headed, short-tailed perching birds that clamber upwards or downwards on the surface of tree trunks or rocks to obtain their food of invertebrates

Size

Nuthatches: 3.5-7.5 in (8.5-19 cm), sittellas: 4.3-4.8 in (11-12 cm), and wall creepers: about 6.3 in (16 cm) in body length

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Number of genera, species

3 genera; about 27 species

Habitat

Mostly forest and woodlands

Distribution

North America, Eurasia, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Australasia

Conservation status

Endangered: 2 species; Vulnerable: 2 species; Near Threatened: 2 species

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