BirdLife International. Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona and Cambridge: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, 2000.

Harrap, S., and D. Quinn. Tits, Nuthatches and Treecreepers of the World. London: Christopher Helm, 1996.

Matthysen, E. The Nuthatches. San Diego: Academic Press: 1998.


Norris, R. A. "Comparative Biosystematics and Life History of the Nuthatches Sitta pygmaea and Sitta pusilla." University of California Publications in Zoology 56 (1958): 119-300.


BirdLife International. Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0NA United Kingdom. Phone: +44 1 223 277 318. Fax: +44-1-223-277-200. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http://www>

IUCN-The World Conservation Union. Rue Mauverney 28, Gland, 1196 Switzerland. Phone: +41-22-999-0001. Fax: +41-22-999-0025. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <>

Bill Freedman, PhD

Class Aves Order Passeriformes Suborder Passeri (Oscines) Family Certhiidae

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