Skead, C. J. The Sunbirds of Southern Africa; Also the Sugarbirds, the White-Eyes, and the Spotted Creeper. Cape Town: A. A. Balkema, 1967.

Stattersfield, Alison J., and David R. Capper, eds. Threatened Birds of the World: The Official Source for Birds on the IUCN Red List. Barcelona: Lynx Ediciones, 2001.


Delacour, J. A. "Revision of the Family Nectariniidae (Sunbirds)." Zoologica 29 (1944): 17-38.

Irwin, M. P. S. "The Genus Nectarinia and the Evolution and Diversification of Sunbirds: An Afrotropical Perspective." Honeyguide 45 (1999): 45-58.

Robert Alexander Cheke, PhD

Class Aves Order Passeriformes Suborder Passeri (Oscines) Family Zosteropidae

Thumbnail description

A fairly uniform group of small perching birds, mostly with a white eye-ring and a brush-tipped tongue, distributed widely in the Old World except in Europe and in arctic and arid regions


Number of genera, species

13 genera; 86 species


Woodlands, forest edges, and gardens

Conservation status

Recently Extinct: 2 species; Critically Endangered: 6 species; Endangered: 1 species; Vulnerable: 14 species

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