Resources

Books

American Ornithologists' Union. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th ed. Washington, DC: American Ornithologists' Union, 1998.

Collar, N.J., L.P. Gonzaga, N. Krabbe, A. MadroƱo Nieto, L.G. Naranjo, T.A. Parker III, and D.C. Wege. Threatened Birds of the Americas. Cambridge, United Kingdom: International Council for Bird Preservation, 1992.

Jaramillo, A., and P. Burke. New World Blackbirds: The Icterids. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Orians, G. Blackbirds of the Americas. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1985.

Periodicals

Lanyon, S.M. "Polyphyly of the Blackbird Genus Agelaius and the Importance of Assumptions of Monophyly in Comparative Studies." Evolution 10 (1994): 679-693.

Nero, R.W. "A Behavior Study of the Red-Winged Blackbird I: Mating and Nesting Activities." Wilson Bulletin 68 (1956): 4-37.

Johnson, K.P., and S.M. Lanyon. "Molecular Systematics of the Grackles and Allies, and the Effect of Additional Sequence (Cyt b and ND2)." Auk 116 (1999): 759-768.

James David Rising, PhD

Class Aves Order Passeriformes Suborder Passeri (Oscines) Family Fringillidae

Thumbnail description

Small to medium-sized, seed-eating birds with a conical-shaped, pointed beak, a short neck, compact body, and plumage that varies from rather drab to quite colorful, especially in male birds

Size

Body length about 4-10 in (10-25 cm) and weight 0.3-2.1 oz (8-60 g)

Number of genera, species

20 genera; 137 species

Habitat

Forest, shrubland, grassland, agricultural areas, parks, and gardens

Conservation status

Critically Endangered: 1 species; Endangered: 5 species; Vulnerable: 3 species; Near Threatened: 4 species; Conservation Dependent: 1 species; Data Deficient: 2 species; Extinct: 1 species

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