Zimmerman, D., D. Turner, and D. Pearson. Birds of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.


Stripling, R., A. Kruse, and D. Clayton. "Development of Song Responses in the Zebra Finch Caudomedial Neostriatum: Role of Genomic and Electrophysiological Activities." Journal of Neurobiology 48 (2001): 163-180.


Birds Australia Nest. Birds Australia. 14 November 2001. <http://>.

2000 1UCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 14 November 2001. <>.

UNEP-WCMC Database. United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 20 November 2001. <>.

Joseph Allen Smith

Class Aves Order Passeriformes Suborder Passeri (Oscines) Family Ploceidae

Thumbnail description

Small to medium-sized passerine birds; bill conical or pointed; plumage plain yellow or black, or these colors in combination with red, brown, or orange, or else sparrowy brown; often there is a seasonal change in plumage, which may include development of greatly elongated tail-feathers; many species highly social, occurring in large flocks


4.3-10 in, up to 28 in with elongated tail (11-25 up to 70 cm); 0.3-2.3 oz (9-65 g)

Number of genera, species

19 genera; 135 species


Forest, woodland, swamps, savanna, semi-arid regions

Conservation status

Critically Endangered: 1 species; Endangered: 6 species; Vulnerable: 7 species; Near Threatened: 3 species; Data Deficient: 2 species

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