Carlquist, Sherwin. Hawaii, A Natural History. New York: Natural History Press, American Museum of Natural History, 1992.

Denny, James. The Birds of Kauai Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Hilton-Taylor, C., comp. 2000 1UCN Red List of Threatened Species. Species Survival Commission (SSC) Red List Programme. Cambridge, UK: IUCN 2000.

Poole, A., P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, eds. Birds of North America: Life Histories for the 21st Century. (Monograph Series) Po'o-uli, no. 272; Akepa, no. 294; Apapane, no. 296; Maui Parrotbill, no. 311; Anianiau, no. 312; Iiwi, no. 327; Ou and Lanai Hookbill, no. 335-336; Amakihis, no. 360; Akohekohe, no. 400; Kona Grosbeak, Greater, and Lesser Koa-Finches, no. 424; Kakawahie and Oahu Alauahio, no. 503; Greater and Lesser Akialoa, no. 512; Akikiki, no. 552; Akiapala'au and Nukupuu, no. 600; Maui Alauahio, no. 681. Washington, DC: American Ornithologists Union, YEAR.

Pratt, H. Douglas, Phillip L. Bruner, and Delwyn G. Berrett. The Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Scott, J. M., S. Conant, and C. Van Riper III, eds. Evolution, Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Hawaiian Birds: A Vanishing Avifauna. Studies in Avian Biology 22. Camarillo, CA: Allen Press, Cooper Ornithological Society, 2001.

Stattersfield, Alison J., and David R. Capper, eds. Threatened Birds of the World: The Official Source for Birds on the IUCN Red List. Barcelona: Lynx Ediciones, 2001.


"Hawaii, Showcase of Evolution." Natural History 91, no. 12 (December 1982).

Olson, Storrs L., and Helen F. James. "Description of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds From the Hawaiian Islands; Parts I and II, Passeriformes." Ornithological Monographs 45&46, bound as one; American Ornithologists' Union, 1991.

Simon, Chris. "Hawaiian Evolutionary Biology: An

Introduction;" Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2, no. 7 (July 1987): 175-178.

Simon, J. C., T. K Pratt, K. E. Berlin, and J. R. Kowalsky. "Reproductive Ecology and Demography of the Akohekohe.;" Condor 103, no. 4:(Nov 2001): 736-745.


The Bishop Museum. 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, HI 96817-0916 USA. Phone: (808) 847-3511. E-mail: museum Web site: <http://www.bishopmuseum .org>

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center. 3190 Maile Way, St. John Hall, Room 408, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. Phone: (808) 956-5691. Fax: (808) 956-5687. E-mail: Bill [email protected] Web site: < piercwebsite.htm>


Payne, Robert B. "Bird Families of the World." University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Bird Division. 12 Jan. 2000 (16 Mar. 2002). < birddivresources/families.html.>.

Pratt, Thane. "Birds of Hawaii." Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center. 18 June 2001 (16 Mar. 2002). <http://>.

Kevin F. Fitzgerald, BS

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