BirdLife International. Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona and Cambridge: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, 2000.

Cramp, S., and C. M. Perrins, eds. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic: Old World Flycatchers to Shrikes. New York: Oxford Press, 1993.

Urban, E. K., C. H. Fry, and S. Keith. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 5. London: Academic Press.


BirdLife International. Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0NA United Kingdom. Phone: +44 1 223 277 318. Fax: +44-1-223-277-200. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <>

IUCN-The World Conservation Union. Rue Mauverney 28, Gland, 1196 Switzerland. Phone: +41-22-999-0001. Fax: +41-22-999-0025. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <>

Bill Freedman, PhD

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