Olivebacked sunbird

Cinnyris jugularis

SUBFAMILY

Nectariniinae

TAXONOMY

Certhia jugularis Linnaeus, 1766, Philippines. Twenty-one subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Yellow-bellied sunbird, yellow-breasted sunbird, black-breasted sunbird, black-throated sunbird; French: Souimanga a dos vert; German: Grünrücken-Nektarvogel; Spanish: Nectarina de Lomo Olivo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 in (11.4 cm); male 0.24-0.37 oz (6.7-10.5 g), female 0.21-0.32 oz (6.0-9.1 g). Dull olive-brown upperparts with contrasting yellow underparts. Metallic forehead, throat, and upper breast. All underparts bright yellow in females.

DISTRIBUTION

Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, Malaysia, southeastern China, Philippines, New Guinea, and northeastern Australia.

HABITAT

Scrub, mangroves, forest, woodland, farmland, plantations, and gardens.

BEHAVIOR

Tame but restless. Often in mixed-species groups. Aggressive. Male displays underneath female, exposing black breast and pectoral tufts while moving head from side to side and calling.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Often feeds low down. Sometimes hovers in front of flowers, leaves, and cobwebs to take nectar, insects, and spiders respectively. Also eats small fruits and pollen.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Oval, purse-shaped nest with hooded side entrance built by female of grass, moss, lichens, and other vegetable matter. One to three grayish eggs incubated for two weeks. Young fledge after further two weeks. In Australia, parasitized by Gould's bronze cuckoo (Chrysococcyx russatus).

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Sometimes nests near or on houses, otherwise none known. ♦

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