Evolution and systematics

The family Fringillidae, or the "true" finches, consists of 20 genera and about 137 species. The family is divided into two subfamilies: the Fringillinae, consisting of three species of chaffinches, and the Carduelinae, comprised of numerous species variously known as bullfinches, canaries, citrils, crossbills, goldfinches, grosbeaks, linnets, rosefinches, seedeaters, serins, and siskins, among other common names. The sys-tematics of the Fringillidae is not, however, entirely settled. Some ornithologists group additional families of birds within a greatly expanded Fringillidae, including the tanagers (Thraupidae), sparrows and buntings (Emberizidae), Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanididae), and Galapagos finches (Geospizinae).

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