European penduline tit

Remiz pendulinus

TAXONOMY

Remiz pendulinus Linnaeus, 1758. Four subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Eurasian penduline tit, penduline tit; French: Rémiz penduline; German: Beutelmeise; Spanish: Baloncito Común.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

4.3 in (110 mm); 0.28-0.44 oz (8-12.5 g). A small tit with, for the group, a relatively long tail. Nominate race: sexes similar, though female paler; prominent black face mask contrasting with otherwise gray head; chestnut brown back, pale buff beneath; juvenile lacks mask.

DISTRIBUTION

A Eurasian bird with a breeding range from western Europe to western Siberia and south to Turkey. Northern populations migratory, moving to southern Europe and the Middle East in winter.

HABITAT

Largely found in wetlands with a mix of reed and scrub, including willow and alder.

BEHAVIOR

Gregarious in flocks of up to 60 birds, especially out of season and on migration. Males aggressively defend immediate territory around nest in breeding season, but this small area allows for possible semi-colonial nesting.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds on invertebrates, including insects and spiders; reed seeds important in winter.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Constructs pendulous (free hanging) pear-shaped nest from compressed plant material and lined with softer items. Suspended from branches or a number of reed stems. Clutch size is two to seven eggs; incubation 13-14 days; fledging 18-26 days.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. Locally common in suitable habitat. Considerable westward expansion between 1930s and 1980s.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

0 0

Post a comment