Ten species are confined to New Guinea and eight to Australia, and the two remaining species occur on both. Bower-

birds are mainly confined to the tropics and subtropics; only satin bowerbirds extend significantly into and across temperate regions. The Australian Chlamydera are mainly lowland dwelling but species in New Guinea occur up to 5,900 ft (1,800 m) altitude. Because of the vast mountain ranges, forest-dwelling New Guinea bowerbirds segregate by altitude. Only white-eared (Ailuroedus buccoides) and black-eared (A. melanotis) catbirds and great bowerbirds occupy continental islands.

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