Pairs or family groups defend territories ranging from about 1 to 10 acres (0.5-4 ha) but expand their ranges outside the breeding season. Many species engage in tail and wing flicking, especially when agitated, but the behavior also could be used to aid foraging. The flame robin (P. phoenicea) of upland Australia and the gray-headed flycatcher (Culicicapa cey-lonensis) show short distance and altitudinal migration. Songs are usually attractive whistling or piping notes with some harsh alarm calls.

A pale-yellow robin (Tregellasia capito) adult and chick at their nest. (Photo by R. Brown/VIREO. Reproduced by permission.)

for many species. Many nests of the Australian robins suffer predation, especially from large birds, so that breeding success is often low.

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