African penduline tit

Anthoscopus caroli

TAXONOMY

Anthoscopus caroli Sharpe, 1871. Eleven subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Gray penduline tit; French: Remiz de Carol; German: Weisstirn-Beutelmeise; Spanish: Baloncito Africano.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

3.5 in (90 mm); 0.21-0.24 oz (6-6.9 g). A variable but bland warbler-like species with a typical conical pointed bill and short tail. Upperparts range between species from olive-green to gray; underparts from pale yellow to cream.

DISTRIBUTION

Most widespread of the Anthoscopus spp. with a range from Kenya to South Africa.

HABITAT

Woodland.

BEHAVIOR

Found in pairs or small groups, sometimes foraging in the tree canopy with other species. Very active.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds on invertebrates and fruit.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Breeds throughout the year across its wide range. Nest typical of the subfamily; pear shaped pendulous sack of compressed plant material provided with a entrance hole and ledge. The hole is fastened together when not in use. Clutch 4-6 white eggs, occasionally more possibly due to two females laying in the same nest. Incubation and fledging periods not known.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened, but some contraction along coastal areas. May be overlooked.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

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