Pintailed whydah

Fringilla macroura Pallas, 1764, 'East Indies' Angola. other common names English King-of-six French Veuve dominicaine German Dominikanerwitwe Spanish Viuda de Cola Aguda. 4.7-5.1 in (12-13 cm), male with long tail 10.2-13.4 in (26-34 cm) female 0.5-0.6 oz (14-16 g), male 0.5-0.7 oz (14-19 g). Female and non-breeding male, brownish upperparts with broad black stripes on top of head, buff to white underparts. Bill brownish red. Breeding male, black and white with four long, black central tail...

Pied currawong

Corvus graculinus Shaw, 1790, Port Jackson (Sydney), Australia. Three to six subspecies in eastern Australia one large-billed on eastern Cape York Peninsula (Strepera graculina magnirostris), one all-dusky in western Victoria (S. g. ashbyi), and the others between which vary regionally in size and tone. One further slender-billed subspecies occurs on Lord Howe Island (S. g. crissalis). English Black currawong French Grand R veilleur German Dickschnabel-Wurgerkrahe Spanish Currawong Palido....

Evening grosbeak

Coccothraustes vespertinus Cooper, 1825. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Grosbec errant German Abendkernbei er Spanish Picogordo Vespertino. The evening grosbeak has a body length of about 7-8.7 in (18-22 cm) and weighs about 2.1 oz (60 g). It has a rather stout body, a short tail, and a stout yellow beak. The male is bright yellow, with black wings with a large white wing-patch, a black tail, and a black crown on the top of the head. Females are a duller gray and brown pattern, with white...

Standardwing bird of paradise

Semioptera wallacii Gray, 1859, near Labuha Village, Batchian ( Bacan Island). Two subspecies. English Wallace's standardwing French Paradisier de Wallace German Banderparadeisvogel Spanish Ave del Para so de Wallace. 9.1-10.2 in (23-26 cm), but 11 in (28 cm) if the standards of adult males be included female 0.28-0.32 lb (126-143 g), male 0.34-0.38 lb (152-174 g). Light brown head, upperparts, and central tail feathers. Decurved bill and tuft at base of mandible give both sexes a distinctive...

Reproductive biology

Cooperative breeding is common in the family, and has been studied in several thornbills and scrubwrens. Mostly, though, acanthizids breed as pairs with some being assisted by a third or fourth bird. The breeding season is typically late winter to early summer and several attempts are made each season. Nests are domed, often with a clear hood above the entrance, and those of gerygones are pendant, attached to foliage. Although usually placed in trees or shrubs, crannies and hollows are also...

For further reading

Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. 2nd edition. 10 Vols. New York Oxford University Press, 1978-1999. American Ornithologists' Union. Check-list of North American Birds the Species of Birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands. 7th ed. Washington, DC The American Ornithologists' Union, 1998. Bennett, Peter M. and I. P. F. Owens. Evolutionary Ecology of Birds Life Histories, Mating Systems, and...

Scarlettufted sunbird

Anthreptes fraseri Jardine and Selby, 1843, Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Three subspecies. English Fraser's sunbird French Souimanga de Fraser German Laubnektarvogel Spanish Nectarina Roja. 4.5-5.0 in (11.5-12.7 cm) 0.35-0.54 oz (10-15.3g). Plumage non-metallic, uniform bright green sexes alike except for orange-yellow pectoral tufts on male only. Immature birds like adults but olive-green above and paler below. Central and West Africa from Sierra Leone to Angola. D. f. cam-eroonensis southern...

Hawfinch

Coccothraustes coccothrauses Linnaeus, 1758. Three subspecies are recognized. French Grosbec German Kernbei er Spanish Picogordo. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Hawfinches are relatively large, heavy-bodied birds with a massive beak they have a stocky, top-heavy appearance. Their body length is about 7 in (18 cm) and they weigh about 1.9 oz (54 g). The male has a black back, wings, and tail, is chestnut on the head and belly, and has a black chin and blue beak. The female is somewhat duller. The...

Blackcapped chickadee

Nine subspecies. English Black-capped tit French M sange t te noire German Schwarzkopfmeise Spanish Carbonero de Capucha Negra. 4.8-5.7 in (12.3-14.6 cm) 0.3-0.5 oz (10-14 g) plumage characteristic of the 'black-capped' tits sexes similar. P. a. atricapillus northeastern United States and eastern Canada P. a. practicus Appalachian mountains in eastern United States P. a. bartletti Newfoundland P. a. turneri Alaska and northwestern Canada P. a. septentrionalis...

Pintailed parrotfinch

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Pin-tailed nonpareil, long-tailed munia French Diamant quadricolore German Lauchgr ne papageiamadine Spanish Pinz n Loro de Cola Aguda. Male 5.9 in (15 cm) female 4.5-4.7 in (11.5-12 cm). Sexually dimorphic. Males have a longer tail, a blue face, and red rump, tail, and belly. A yellow variant exists where the red is replaced with yellow. Females have less blue on the face, shorter tail, and a lack of red on the belly or breast. Juveniles...

Rufous treepie

Dendrocitta vagabunda Latham, 1790, India. Nine subspecies. other common names English Indian treepie French Temia vagabonde German Wanderelster Spanish Urraca vagabunda. 17.94-19.5 in (46-50 cm) 3.15-4.55 oz (90-130 g). Upper-parts are rusty-orange underparts are paler and buffy. Head, neck, breast, and upper mantle are blackish. Wing coverts and tertials are pale, silvery gray the rest of the wing is brownish black. Central tail feathers are pale gray ending in a wide, black terminal band...

Gouldian finch

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Rainbow finch, painted finch, lady Gould, purple-breasted finch French Diamant de Gould German Goul-damadine Spanish Pinz n de Gould. 4.9-5.5 in (12.5-14 cm). The most brightly colored estrildid, this species is sexually dimorphic females have a shorter tail and a paler breast. Juveniles are a duller, paler version of the adults. Black-headed, red-headed, and yellow-headed varieties exist naturally in the wild. The black-headed is the...

Conservation status

In the wood warbler family, the IUCN lists seven as Near Threatened, seven as Vulnerable (including one conebill), five as Endangered, and three as Critically Endangered species. Of the Critically Endangered, two are feared to already be Extinct. They are the Semper's warbler (Leu-copeza semperi) of the mountains of St. Lucia in the West Indies, and Bachman's warbler (Vermivora bachmanii), a once abundant North American breeding bird that wintered in West Indies' forests. As might be expected,...

Olivebellied sunbird

Nectarinia chloropygia Jardine, 1842, Aboh, River Niger, Nigeria. Four subspecies. French Souimanga a ventre olive German Olivbauch-Nektarvogel Spanish Nectarina de Vientre Olivo. 4.1-4.3 in (10.5-11.0 cm) male 0.17-0.28 oz (4.7-8.0 g), female 0.18-0.26 oz (5-7.5 g). Glossy dark green forehead to back and throat scarlet breast, brown wings and tail, and olive belly. C. c. bineschensis southwestern Ethiopia C. c. chloropygius southeastern Nigeria to Angola C. c. kempi Senegal to southwestern...

Distribution

Weavers occur throughout sub-Saharan Africa, where all sub-families are represented. Only two genera of Ploceinae are found outside Africa the fodies (Foudia) which are endemic to Madagascar and other Indian Ocean islands, and Plo-ceus with two species on Madagascar and five in Asia. One East African species, Ruppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula), also occurs on the Arabian peninsula. Several species are commonly exported as cage birds, and escapes or deliberate releases have led to their...

Silverbird

Empidornis semipartita R ppell, 1840. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Gobemouche argent German Silberschn pper Spanish Papamoscas Plateado. The body length is about 7.5 in (18 cm). The sexes are colored similarly, with a light silvery grayish blue back, bright rufus underparts, wings gray above and orange beneath, and silvery markings on the head and tail. An endemic (or local) species of the highlands of east-central Africa, including parts of Ethiopia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. Occurs in...

Abyssinian slaty flycatcher

Melaenornis chocolatina R ppell, 1840. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Chocolate flycatcher slaty flycatcher French Gobe-mouche chocolat German Habeschdrongoschn pper Spanish Papamoscas Et ope. The body length is about 5.5 in (15 cm). The sexes are colored similarly, with a dark-brown back, grayer belly, light under the rump, and buff on breast. An endemic (or local) species of the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Occurs in a range of types of humid, highland forest and woods and coffee...

Zitting cisticola

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Fantailed warbler, streaked cisticola French Cisticole des joncs German Cistensanger Spanish Buitr n Com n. 3.9-4.7 in (10-12 cm) 0.3-0.4 oz (8-12 g). Small warbler with warm brown upperparts strongly streaked with black, rufous rump and flanks, short, rounded wings, and short, graduated tail, spotted black and white underneath. Bill short, thin, and slightly decurved. Widespread. Southern Europe (Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean...

Lawess parotia

Parotia lawesii Ramsay, 1885, Astrolabe Mountains (subsequently defined as the Aruma Apa-Maguli Mountains, Owen Stanley Range, Papua New Guinea). Two subspecies. English Lawes's six-wired bird of paradise, Lawes's six-wired parotia, Lawes's six-plumed bird of paradise, Helena's parotia French Paradisier de Lawes German Blaunacken-Paradeisvogel Spanish Perotia de Lawes. 9.8 in (25 cm) female 0.27-0.37 lb (122-169 g), male 0.34-0.43 lb (153-195 g). Entirely jet black with short tail. Head...

Dusky indigobird

Fringilla funerea de Tarragon, 1847, Natal. other common names English Black widow finch, variable indigobird French Com-bassou variable German Purpuratlaswitwe Spanish Viuda Variable. 4.3-4.7 in (11-12 cm), female 0.4-0.5 oz (12-16 g), male 0.5-0.6 oz (14-17 g). Breeding male black, with whitish bill and red legs. Female and non-breeding male buff upperparts with broad black stripes on head, whitish underparts. Juvenile like female but head dark, unstriped. Tanzania to eastern South Africa....

Common waxbill

OTHER COMMON NAMES English St. Helena waxbill, barred waxbill, brown waxbill, pheasant finch French Astrild ondul German Wellenastrild Spanish Astrilda Com n. 4.3-5.1 in (11-13 cm). Sexes are alike. Juveniles are paler than adults and have fainter barring. Found naturally in southern Senegal, east to Ethiopia, south to South Africa, essentially throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa. Has been introduced in Brazil, Portugal, and many islands throughout the world...

Yellowbellied eremomela

Eremomela icteropygialis Lafresnaye, 1822. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Salvadori's eremomela French Fremomele a croupion jaune German Gelbbauch-Eremomela Spanish Eremomela de Vientre Amarillo. 3.9-4.3 in (10-11 cm) 0.26-0.33 oz (7.5-9.3 g). Small bird with gray head, nape, back, and breast, yellow belly and under-tail. Dark eyeline surmounted by a lighter one dark gray wing and tail. Widespread throughout non-forested sub-Saharan Africa. HABITAT Woodland, forest edge, scrub, gardens, and...

Diamond firetail

Stagonopleura guttata or Emblema guttata English Diamond sparrow, diamond Java sparrow, spotted-sided finch French Diamant a gouttelettes German Diaman-tamadine Spanish Pinzon Cola de Fuego Diamante. 4.7 in (12 cm). The adult male is brown, above and including wings rump and upper tail coverts are bright crimson, tail feathers black forehead, crown of head, and hind neck ashy gray lores black throat white sides of foreneck and flanks black, with some feathers having a subterminal white spot...

Longtailed meadowlark

Trupialis loyca Bonaparte, 1851, Peru. At present, four geographically discrete forms are recognized. French Sturnelle australe German Langschwanz-Soldaten-starling Spanish Loica Com n. 9.5-10 in (24-25.5 cm) 4 oz (113 g). The sexes are similar in color, but the females are somewhat duller. The throat, breast, and belly are red, and there is a dash of red from above the eye to the bill. There is a white line running from the top of the eye back to the nape. Resident in western South America...

Sakalava weaver

Ploceus sakalava Hartlaub, 1867, Madagascar. other common names French Tisserin sakalave German Sakalavenweber Spanish Fodi Sakalava. 5.1-5.9 in (13-15 cm) adult 0.7-0.9 oz (20-27 g). Breeding male has yellow head, gray underparts and back, brown wings and tail. Bare reddish skin around eye, unique in weavers, blue-gray bill. Female is paler below, with whitish throat and distinct brown stripes on side of head, above and below eye bill pale gray. Non-breeding male like female, but bare pinkish...

Significance to humans

Their small size, inconspicuous coloration, and preference for inhabiting vegetation make the Old World warblers unlikely candidates for human attention. However, the songs of many species are complex and well-developed. Since many species inhabit Europe and the Mediterranean, these songs have been familiar to Western civilization for thousands of years. Sylviids are largely insectivorous, and are thus invaluable agents of pest control, not only in agricultural and suburban areas, but in...

European serin

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Serin French Serin cini German Girlitz Spanish Verdecillo. European serins are small finches, with a body length of about 4.3 in (11 cm). They have a short, strong, pointed beak and a slightly forked tail. The male is colored greenish streaked with black on the back, with dark wings and tail, and a yellow rump, head, and chest. The female is darker and duller, and much less yellow. The European serin breeds widely in Europe and around...

Goldenspectacled warbler

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Yellow-eyed flycatcher warbler French Pouillot de Burke German Goldbrillen-Laubs ngerl Spanish Curruca de Burke. 3.9-4.7 in (10-12 cm) 0.2-0.3 oz (6-9 g). Small, plump warbler, with bright green upperparts, bright yellow underparts, a short, broad tail with white undertail feathers. Crown streaked black and gray, eyering yellow yellow wingbar. Southern Asia, from India to south-central China to Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Mid-level...

Physical characteristics

Bowerbird morphology and anatomy are broadly typical of oscinine passerines with the exception of a few traits. Typical songbirds have 9-10 secondaries (including tertials), but bowerbirds have 11-14. Bowerbirds also have an enlarged lachrymal (part of the skull cranium, near the orbit) that is paralleled only in the Australian lyrebirds (Menuridae). Bowerbirds have high average survivorship, and some individuals live for 20-30 years. Within the family, great bowerbirds (Chlamydera nuchalis)...

Greenfinch

Nine subspecies are recognized. English European greenfinch French Verdier d'Europe German Gr nling, Gr nfink Spanish Verderon Com n. Greenfinches are about 5.5 in (14 cm) in body length. They have pink legs and a stout beak. Both sexes are colored overall yellow-brown, with grayish, yellow-edged wings, and black on the tail. Females are duller than males, and juveniles have streaked breasts. Greenfinches range widely across Europe and western Asia. They have...

Anianiau

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Lesser amakihi French Hemignathe anianiau German Anianiau Spanish Anianiau. 4.5 in (11.4 cm) 0.32-0.35 oz (9-10 g). Smallest living bird species of Hawaii. Compact build, looks almost spherical when perching. Bill is small, thin, and slightly downturned. Male is bright yellow over most of body, with white rump and slightly darker wings female duller. Widespread in mountain forests of Kauai Island. Variety of habitats, from dry valleys...

Yelloweared spiderhunter

Nectarinia chrysogenys Temminck, 1826, Bantam District, Java. Two subspecies. English Lesser yellow-eared spiderhunter French Arach-nothere a joues jaunes German Gelbwangen-Spinnenj ger Spanish Ara era de Orejas Amarillas Menor. 7 in (17.8 cm). Long-billed bird with greenish head fading to brown upperparts and yellow underparts. Yellow ear patch and ring around eye. A. c. chrysogenys southern Myanmar, southern Thailand, peninsular Malaysia, western Borneo, Java, and Sumatra A. c. harris-soni...

Crested bellbird

Falcunculus gutturalis Vigors and Horsfield, 1827, Bass Strait. Two subspecies. French Carillonneur hupp German Haubengudilang Spanish Campanero Crestado. 8.3-9.1 in (21-23 cm) 0.13-0.15 lb (57-67 g). Brownish up-perparts with white around bill, black crest tip and breast, and buff belly. O. g. gutturalis South, southwest and inland southeast Australia O. g. pallescens northern, west central, and central Australia. Arid inland and coastal woodlands and scrubs. Sedentary or locally nomadic in...

Purple sunbird

Certhia asiatica Latham, 1790, Gurgaon, India. Three subspecies. French Souimanga Asiatique German Purpurnektarvogel Spanish Nectarina Asi tica. 4-4.5 in (10.1-11.4 cm) male 0.24-0.39 oz (6.9-11.0 g), female 0.17-0.35 oz (5-10 g). Medium-sized decurved bill. Male all dark, iridescent during breeding. Female brown and yellow. C. a. asiaticus India south of Himalayas, except northwest and north, and Sri Lanka C. a. brevirostris southeastern Oman, southern Iran, Baluchistan, and Pakistan, to...

Evolution and systematics

The fossil record of passerine birds is fragmentary and difficult to interpret. There are no conspicuous skeletal characters in ploceids that distinguish their bones from those of other passerine families, which makes it unlikely that fossils will provide clear evidence of their origins. However, both fossils and molecular data suggest that the passerine birds are an old group, and that many extant families could be as old as 40 million years. Thus the weaver group are likely to have evolved in...

Redbrowed treecreeper

Climacteris erythrops Gould, 1841, Liverpool Plains, New South Wales, Australia. English Red-eyebrowed treecreeper French Echelet a sourcils roux German Rostbrauen-Baumrutscher Spanish Sube Palo de Cejas Rojas. 6.3 in (16 cm) 0.8 oz (23 g). Underparts brown streaked with white gray head with rufous around eye, white throat, brown mantle, and grayish tail. Southeastern Australia from Brisbane to Melbourne. Eucalypt forests of the Great Dividing Range, less commonly in woodlands to the west of...

Redbilled oxpecker

Tanagra erythrorhyncha Stanley, 1814, Ethiopia. other common names French Piqueboeuf a bec rouge German RotschnabelMadenhacker Spanish Picabuey de Pico Rojo. 7.5-8.7 in (19-22 cm) weight 1.5-2.1 oz (42-59 g). Olive-brown above, tan on rump and breast red bill and eyes with conspicuous yellow flesh around the eyes. Juveniles have a dark bill and eyes and brown area around the eyes. East and southeast Africa with a highly fragmented distribution from western Central African Republic, Sudan,...

Northern raven

Eight subspecies may be recognized. French Grand corbeau German Kolkrabe Spanish Cuervo Com n. 22.62-26.91 in (58-69 cm) 2.02-3.43 lb (92-156 g). Plumage is glossy black. Prominent nasal bristles cover basal third of upper mandible. Long, heavy bill is black and the distal part of the culmen is strongly decurved. Legs and feet are also black. Most widespread corvid found in most of the Northern Hemisphere. A wide variety of habitats, generally open and away...

Montezumas oropendola

Cacicus montezuma Lesson, 1830, Mexico. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Cassique de Montezuma German Montezumastirnvo-gel Spanish Chacarero de Montezuma, Orop ndola de Moctezuma. 15-20 in (38-50.5 cm) female 7-9 oz (198-254 g), male 12.5 oz-1.2 lb (353-528 g). Sexes similar in color. A large chestnut oropendola with a black head, a bare blue cheek patch, a small pink patch at the base of the lower bill, orange-tipped black bill, and yellow lateral tail feathers. Resident from southeastern Mexico...

Jacky winter

Sylvia leucophaea Latham, 1801, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Four subspecies. English Brown flycatcher French Miro enchanteur German Weisschwanzschn pper Spanish Tordo Australiano de Cola Blanca. 5-5.5 in (12.5-14 cm) 0.5-0.65 oz (14-18 g). Sandy crown and back, white throat and belly, brownish gray and white wings and tail, white around eye and black stripe through eye. Most of Australia, except for central and western deserts, and northern Cape York absent from Tasmania and Kangaroo...

Eastern whipbird

Corvus olivaceus Latham, 1801, New South Wales, Australia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Stockwhip bird, green-backed whipbird French Psophode t te noire German Schwarzschopf-Wippfloter Spanish P jaro L tigo Verde. 10.4-12 in (26.5-30.5 cm) 1.6-2.5 oz (47-72 g). Dark olive-green body, black head with small black crest, white cheeks, and long tail. P. o. lateralis northeast Australia P. o. olivaceus central east and southeast Australia. Rainforest, eucalypt forest, riverine vegetation, other low...

Bobolink

Fringilla oryzivora Linnaeus, 1758, South Carolina. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Goglu de pr German Bobolink Spanish Charlatan, Triste-pia. 6-7 in (15-17.5 cm) female 0.9-1.6 oz (26.5-44.3 g), male 1-2 oz (28.5-56.3 g). Sexually dimorphic in color. Males black face and underparts, light yellow on the back of head and nape, pale grayish white rump, wings black with pale edges to some of the feathers, white scapulars, and a white-tipped black tail. Males in winter, females, and juveniles brown or...

Resources

A. Zimmerman. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press, 1996. BirdLife International.Threatened Birds of Asia The BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge BirdLife International, 2001. BirdLife International. Threatened Birds of the World. Cambridge BirdLife International, 2000. Coates, B. J., and K. D. Bishop. A Guide to the Birds of Wallacea. Queensland, Australia Dove Publications, 1997. King, B., M. Woodcock, and E. C....

Regent honeyeater

Regente Pajaro

Merops phrygius Shaw, 1794, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. English Warty-faced honeyeater French M lephage r gent German Warzenhonigfresser Spanish P jaro Az car Real. 9 in (22.5 cm) 1.4-1.6 oz (39-45 g). Dark head with orange eye patch dark wings and tail with yellowish tips white under-parts with black scaly pattern. Southeastern Australia from near Brisbane to central Victoria. Vagrant into Adelaide region and in many parts of range. Main breeding populations are on northwest slopes of...

Eastern towhee

Fringilla erythrophthalma Linnaeus, 1758, South Carolina. Four subspecies. English Red-eyed towhee, rufous-sided towhee French Tohia flancs roux German R telgrundammer Spanish Rascador Ojirrojo. 7-8 in (17-20.5 cm) 1.2-1.8 oz (35-50 g). Sexually dimorphic, large, long-tailed sparrows. Males have a black head, throat back, and tail, white at the base of the primary wing feathers, rusty flanks, and a white belly. Females are patterned as males but are a warm brown where the males are black. Eye...

Bishops oo

Acrulocercus bishopi Rothschild, 1893, Molokai Island, Hawaii. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Molokai oo French Moho de Bishop German Ohrb schelmoho Spanish Oo Obispo. 12 in (31 cm). Smoky black neck, back, and underparts with narrow white shaft lines on feathers. Wings and tail black. Tufts of golden feathers at ear coverts, undertail, and axillary. Maui Island, formerly Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands. Inquisitive but timid and alert. Very loud owow, owow-ow call. The long graduated tail of male...

American goldfinch

English Goldfinch, wild canary French Chardonneret jaune German Goldzeisig Spanish Dominiquito Canario. The American goldfinch is about 4.3 in (11 cm) in body length and weighs 0.5 oz (14 g). The male is colored overall a bright canary yellow, with black wings marked with white bars, a black tail, and a black face cap. The female is a more subdued yellow, with dark wings and tail. The juveniles are olive-yellow, with darker wings. During the winter, the male is not so brightly colored. The...

Gray butcherbird

Lanius torquatus Latham, 1802, Port Jackson (Sydney), Australia. Three, possibly four subspecies one large and dark with reduced white in wing in Tasmania (Cracticus torquatus cinereus), another small and dark with reduced white in wing in coastal southeastern Australia between the New South WalesQueensland border and Melbourne (nominate torquatus), and a third (that may comprise east and west forms) small and paler with extensive white in wing throughout southern and inland Australia from the...

Java sparrow

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Ricebird, Java temple bird, Java finch, rice munia, paddy bird French Padda de Java German Reisfink Spanish Gorrion de Java. 5.1-6.7 in (13-17 cm). Sexes alike. Upperparts are gray, the head and tail are black, the underparts are rosy, the cheeks are white, and the bill is bright pink to red. Young and immature Javas are dull brown and gray, with bill darker than that of adults. Found naturally only on the island of Java. Introduced in...

Yellowrumped thornbill

Acanthiza chrysorrhoa Quoy and Gaimard, 1830, New South Wales, Australia. English Yellow-tailed thornbill, tom-tit French Acanthize a croupion jaune German Gelbb rzel-Dornschnabel Spanish Acanzisa de Cola Amarillo. 4 in (10 cm) 0.32 oz (9 g). Characterized by a bright yellow rump, black crown spotted white, and white brow. Southern and central Australia, including Tasmania. Open woodland and edges, farmland and grassland with scattered trees or bushes, parks and gardens. Typically in family...

Red avadavat

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Red munia, avadavat, strawberry finch, tiger finch French Bengali rouge German Tigerfink Spanish Bengali Rojo. 3.9 in (10 cm). Sexually dimorphic females have less extensive spotting and red. Juveniles similar to females but have a darker bill. Males are unique among estrildids due to their non-breeding or eclipse plumage with which they look more like the females. Eastern Pakistan through India into Burma and south-central China...

Bushtit

Eleven subspecies recognized. English Common bushtit, black-eared bushtit French M sange masqu e German Buschmeise Spanish Satrecito Com n. 4-4.5 in (10-11.4 cm) 0.18-0.21 oz (5-6 g). Tiny birds with a variable plumage range. Generally gray above with paler gray underparts. Coastal birds have brown caps and black-eared forms have black masks extending back to ear coverts. Western United States (extending a little northward into Canada) and Mexico. Deciduous...

Rosy starling

Turdus roseus Linnaeus, 1758, Lapland and Switzerland. English Rose-colored starling, rosy pastor French tourneau roselin German Rosenstar Spanish Estornino Rosado. 7.5-9.1 in (19-23 cm) weight 2.1-3.1 oz (60-88 g). Black head to upper back, chin to base of throat, wing feathers, tail, and vent. Pale rosy back, breast, and abdomen. Bill ivory-yellow. South-central Eurasia generally found where locust swarms are regular winters primarily in India, but wanders widely. Found in semi-desert areas...

Variable seedeater

Loxia americana Gmelin, 1789, Cayenne. Three subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Wing-barred seedeater, black seedeater French Sporophile variable German Wechselpfaffchen Spanish Semillero Variable. 4.2-4.5 in (11-11.5 cm) 3.5-0.4 oz (10-11 g). Sexes differ in color. Males from Mexico to Costa Rica are black with white at the base of their primaries males from Costa Rica to northeast Peru and Amazonian Brazil are highly variable, with white on the throat and side of the neck, a black chest...

African blue flycatcher

Myiagra longicauda Swainson, 1838, Senegal. Two subspecies. Sometimes considered a superspecies with the white-tailed blue flycatcher (E. albicauda). English Blue flycatcher, northern fairy flycatcher French Gobemouche bleu German T rkis Elminie Spanish Eliminia Azul. Male is cobalt blue above and on the throat, paler below, with a long tail. Females and immatures are grayer, with a narrow band of blue on edges of wing and tail-feathers. The widest distribution of the Elminia flycatchers, from...

Spotted munia

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Scaly-breasted munia mannikin finch, barred munia, spice finch bird, ricebird, nutmeg mannikin finch, spotted mannikin, common munia French Capucin damier German Muskatamadine Spanish Capuchino Nutmeg. 3.9-4.7 in (10-12 cm). Sexes alike with juveniles a paler brown and lacking the scaled pattern on the underparts. India, southern China, and Southeast Asia including parts of Malaysia and Indonesia. Populations introduced in Australia,...

African silverbill

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Warbling silverbill, black-rumped silverbill, silverbill French Capucin bec-d'argent German Silberschnabelchen Spanish Monjita Pico-de-plata. 3.9-4.5 in (10-11.5 cm). Sexes indistinguishable brown, belly white, rump and tail black. Juveniles have slightly paler under-parts. Southern Mauritania, east to Eritrea, south to northeastern Tanzania. Two Asian populations, one in southern Saudi Arabia and western Yemen, and one in southern Oman....

Organizations

Wellbrook Court, Girton Road Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0NA United Kingdom Phone +44 1 223 277 318 Fax +44-1-223-277-200 African Gamebird Research, Education and Development (AGRED) African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) UN Premises in Bonn, Martin Luther-King St. Bonn D-53175 Germany < http www.wcmc.org.uk AEWA> American Zoo and Aquarium Association 8403 Colesville Road Suite 710 Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 < http www.aza.org> Association for BioDiversity...

Sri Lanka myna

Gracula ptilogenys Blyth, 1846. other common names English Ceylon myna, Sri Lanka hill myna, grackle French Mainate de Ceylan German Dschungelatzel Spanish Maina de Ceilon. 9.1-9.8 in (23-25 cm). A small, stubby black myna with a white stripe through the primaries, orange bill that is dark at the base, yellow legs, and a bare yellow nape wattle. Sri Lanka lowlands to 6,300 ft (1,920 m). habitat Moist forest also, cultivated areas with trees. behavior Gregarious and arboreal, rarely coming to...

Chaffinch

Seventeen subspecies are recognized. English Common chaffinch French Pinson des arbres German Buchfink Spanish Pinz n Com n. Chaffinches are 5.5-7.1 in (14-18 cm) in body length, have a wingspan of similar length, and weigh 0.7-0.9 oz (20-25 g). They have a white patch on the shoulder, a white wing-bar, and white markings on the tail. Males have a slate-blue back of the head, a pink to deep-red face and breast, and a gray-blue tail. The female is yellow-brown...

Railbabbler

Eupetes macrocerus Temminck, 1831, Padang, Sumatra. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Malaysian rail-babbler French Eupete a longue queue German Rallenlaufer Spanish Hablant n Malayo. 11.4 in (29 cm). Brownish plumage with black legs and bill, white brow stripe and black eye stripe, sometimes with bluish stripe underneath. E. m. macrocerus Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Sumatra E. m. borneensis Borneo. Lives up to 3,300 ft (1,000 m). Broad-leaved evergreen forest in lowland and hills. Very shy....

Thickbilled flowerpecker

Fringilla agilis Tickell, 1833, Bengal, India. Eleven subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Striped flowerpecker French Dic e bec pais German Dickschnabel-Mistelfresser Spanish Pica Flor de Pico Ancho. 4 in (10.2 cm) 0.32 oz (9 g). Olive-gray upperparts with whitish, lores, breast, belly, and undertail coverts. Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, north Vietnam, Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, and the Philippines. Forests, woods, plantations, and gardens from sea-level up...

European starling

Twelve races recognized. other common names English Common starling, northern starling, English starling, purple-winged starling, starling French tourneau sansonnet German Star Spanish Estornino Pinto. 8.3-8.7 in (21 22 cm) weight 2.0-3.7 oz (58-105 g). A purple-green iridescent, short-tailed black bird with a long thin bill that changes seasonally from black in winter to yellow during nesting. Following the fall molt, starlings are very spotted with white as a...

Blue jewelbabbler

Eupetes caerulescens Temminck, 1835, Lobo, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. English Lowland eupetes French Ptilorrhoa bleu German Blaufloter Spanish Hablant n del Valle. 8.7 in (22 cm) 1.7-2.2 oz (49-61 g). A smaller bird with mostly blue plumage. Black eye stripe from bill to breast, black primaries, and white throat and upper breast. P. c. caerulescens west New Guinea P. c. neumanni north New Guinea P. c. nigricrissa south New Guinea P. geislerorum northeast New Guinea (sometimes regarded as separate...

King of Saxony bird of paradise

Mountains on the Ambernoh ( Mamberamo) River, Irian Jaya, subsequently restricted to the Weyland Mountains. English King of Saxony's bird of paradise, enamelled bird of paradise, enamelled bird French Paradisier de Prince Albert German Wimpeltrager Spanish Ave del Para so Rey de Sajonia. 8.3 in (21 cm) 19.7 in (50 cm) if head plumes of adult male are included female 0.15-0.19 lb (68-88 g), male 0.18-0.21 lb (80-95 g). Head, mantle, and back is deep black with...

Apostlebird

A smaller isolated population in the north of Australia may constitute a subspecies with birds that are slightly larger but with smaller bills than the eastern population. English Gray jumper French Ap tre gris German Gimpelh her Spanish Ave Ap stol. Mottled ashy gray plumage with brown wings, black tail, and a short, stubby, black bill. Males and females have similar plumage. Juveniles have fluffy plumage and brown eyes which change to gray after their second...

Goulds sunbird

Cinnyris gouldiae Vigors, 1831, Simla-Almora District, Himalayas. Four subspecies. English Mrs. Gould's sunbird French Souimanga de Gould German Gouldnektarvogel Spanish Nectarina de la Gould. 4.3 in (11 cm), but male's tail may be 1.75 in (4.5 cm) longer male 0.23-0.28 oz (6.5-8.0 g), female 0.14-0.21 oz (4.0-6.1 g). A glossy purple head and tail red back with two stripes to the bill on each side. Wings dull brown with yellow underparts and rump. A. g. annamensis southern Vietnam, southern...

Prothonotary warbler

Protonotaria citrea Boddaert, 1783, Louisiana. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Paruline protonotaire German Orangefleck-Waldsanger Spanish Reinita Cabecidorada. 5-5.5 in (12.7 14 cm). Long, thin bill, bright golden yellow and gray plumage, and a fairly short tail. Its name comes from a resemblance of its plumage to the garb of court clerks, known as prothonotaries. The female is similar but less brightly colored. Breed from Florida west to Texas and north to Minnesota, southern Ontario and...

Crested bird of paradise

Cnemophilus macgregorii De Vis, 1890, Mount Knutsford, Owen Stanley Range, British New Guinea. Two subspecies. English Sickle-crested bird of paradise, multi-crested bird of paradise French Paradisier hupp German Furchenvogel Spanish Ave del Para so de MacGregor. 9.5 in (24 cm) female 0.17-0.28 lb (79-125 g), male 0.20-0.27 lb (90-120 g). Forehead, ear coverts, and upperparts bright flame yellow with orange wash, dulling in color toward rump and tail. Bill, lores, and underparts a dark brownish...

Dusky woodswallow

Artamus cyanoptera Latham, 1801, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Two subspecies. French Langrayen sordide German Russchwalbenstar Spanish Golondrina del Bosque Ahumada. 6.7-7.1 in (17-18 cm) 1.1-1.6 oz (31-46 g). Smoky-brown body, dark gray wings and tail wings edged in white, distinctive white spots at end of tail. Underwings silvery. Australian endemic. A. c. perthi is resident in southwest Australia. A. c. cyanopterus is found in eastern South Australia up to southern Queensland,...

Western meadowlark

Sturnella neglecta Audubon, 1844, Old Fort Union, North Dakota. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Sturnelle de l'ouest German Wiesenstarling Spanish Triguera de Occidente, Pradero Occidental. 8.5-9.5 in (21.5-24 cm) female 3.2 oz (89 g), male 4 oz (115 g). Sexes alike in color. Throat and underparts bright yellow, with a black V on the breast yellow stripe over the eye back, wings, and tail mottled with brown outermost tail feathers white. Breeds from central British Columbia and Alberta east to...

Toothbilled bowerbird

Scenopoeetes dentirostris Ramsay, 1876, Bellenden Ker Range, Queensland, Australia. English Stagemaker, tooth-billed catbird, leaf turner French Jardinier a bec dent German Zahnlaubenvogel Spanish Capulinero de Pico Dentado. physical characteristics 10.6 in (27 cm) female 0.35-0.40 lb (157-182 g), male 0.29-0.44 lb (132-199 g). Medium sized, brownish bird with a dark notched bill used to cut leaves for decorating court areas. Australian wet tropics, north Queensland from Big Tableland in the...

Ashy drongo

Dicrurus leucophaeus Vieillot, 1817, Ceylon Java. About fourteen subspecies, differing principally in depth of body tone, tail furcation, and presence and extent of a white facial mark. All subspecies intergrade where their breeding ranges meet. French Drongo cendr German Graudrongo Spanish Drogo Cenzio. 10.5-12.0 in (26-30 cm) 1.4-2.2 oz (40-60 g). The only gray drongo, slim in body and with well-forked tail, varying from pale to dark slaty ashen, paler ventrally and with light green-blue...

Crested myna

Three races recognized. other common names English Chinese jungle myna, Chinese crested myna, Chinese starling, tufted myna French Martin hupp German Haubenmaina Spanish Maina China. 8.7-10.2 in (22-26 cm). Sexes similar black with an ivory bill, orange eye, and longer feathers forming a crest on the lower forehead juvenile slightly browner, with less of a crest, and blue eyes. Lowlands of south Asia introduced to Malaya, the Philippines (Luzon, Negros), and...

Feeding ecology and diet

Honeycreepers eat almost anything edible, and run the entire gamut from generalist, omnivorous feeding, e.g., Laysan finches and amakihis, to specialization on a single plant species. Individual species tend to confine their diets to one or a few major sources. Foods include nectar of ohia (a primary food source for several species), insects, spiders, land snails, slugs, fruit, tree sap, seeds and seedpods, sea-bird eggs, and carrion. Species with long, curved bills poke them into flowers to...

Noisy friarbird

Merops corniculatus Latham, 1790, Endeavour River, Queensland, Australia. English Leatherhead, four-o'clock French Polochion criard German L rmlederkopf Spanish Filemon Griton. 13 in (33 cm) 3.4-4.4 oz (96-122 g). Bare black head and upright knob on bill. White throat, breast, and tail, with darker upperparts. Eastern Australia from coast to edge of plains and along Murray River. Trans-Fly region of New Guinea. Separate subspecies in north Queensland and New Guinea. Woodlands and open forests,...

Brambling

Fringilla montifringiHa Linnaeus, 1758. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Pinson du Nord German Bergfink Spanish Pinzon Real. Bramblings are small, stout birds, with a body length of about 5.7 in (14.5 cm). Males have a black head and back, a rich orange throat and breast, wings and tail marked with white and black, and a whitish belly. Females have a similar but much duller coloration. During the winter, males look similar to the females, but they start to molt into their breeding plumage in late...

Eurasian jay

Garrulus glandarius Linnaeus, 1758, Sweden. About 33 subspecies. English Red-crowned jay (in India) French Geai des chenes German Eichelhaher Spanish Arrendejo Com n. 12.48-14.04 in (32-36 cm) 4.9-6.55 oz (140-187 g). Subspecies vary significantly in plumage color and pattern, but generally this bird has a pinkish brown body, white wing patches, blue shoulders, and a black tail. The head features a black moustache and crown feathers that appear ruffled when erect. Bill is dark brownish horn,...

Crimson seedcracker

Pirenestes sanguineus Swainson, 1837. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Pyr neste gros-bec German Karmesinastrild Spanish Pinz n Casca Nueces Rojo. 5.1-5.5 in (13-14 cm). Sexes differ slightly. Males have a red head, nape, breast, and flanks. Females lack red on the flanks and are duller on the nape and breast. Juveniles lack red except on the rump and tail. Southern Cote d'Ivoire to southern Senegal. HABITAT Prefers wet habitats including marsh, flooded rice fields, swamps, and undergrowth near water....

Akohekohe

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Crested honeycreeper French Palm rie hupp e German Schopfkleidervogel Spanish Akojekoje. 7 in (18 cm) 1 oz (29 g) largest living honeycreeper. Sexes are monochromatic. Unique appearance of black plumage splashed and streaked with brilliant orange-scarlet and silver. Prominent, bushy, whitish crest curves forward over the bill. Crest is often dusted with ohia pollen, thus may serve as a pollinating organ, as well as a display feature....

Black drongo

Dicrurus macrocercus Vieillot, 1817, Afrique Madras, India. About seven subspecies, differing in size, tone of gloss and wing lining, tail function, and presence of a white facial spot. English King crow French Drongo royal German Konigs-drongol Spanish Drogo Real. 11-13 in (26-32 cm) 1.5-2.2 oz (40-60 gm). The archetypal drongo, slender bodied, jet black with blue or green gloss, red eye, uncrested and without hackles but well bristled around bill, and tail deeply forked sexes are similar, and...

Apapane

OTHER COMMON NAMES French Picchion cramoisi German Apapane Spanish Apapane. 5.25 in (13.3 cm) 0.5-0.56 oz (14-16 g). Plumage bright crimson with black wings and tail, white undertail and abdomen long, downcurved bill. Not threatened. Most abundant honeycreeper species, also one of the most conspicuous. Common in forests over 3,300 ft (1,000 m) on Hawaii, Maui, Kauai, and Oahu, rare or extinct on Molokai and Lanai. Forests over 3,300 ft (1,000 m). BEHAVIOR...

Melodious blackbird

Deppe, 1830, Oaxaca, Mexico. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Scrub blackbird French Quiscale chanteur German Trauerstarling, Buschstarling Spanish Tordo Cantor. 9-11.5 in (23-29 cm) 2.9-3.6 oz (83.5-102 g) females somewhat smaller than males. Sexes similar in color. Entirely black, showing slight iridescence, with a black eye, and moderately long tail. Juveniles are brownish black, and lack iridescence. Resident from central Mexico south to northern Costa Rica. HABITAT Tropical...

Belfords melidectes

Melirrhophetes belfordi De Vis, 1890, Mount Knutsford, New Guinea. Seven subspecies. English Belford's honeyeater French Meliphage de Belford German Belfordhonigfresser Spanish Pajaro Miel de Belford. 10.7 in (27 cm) female 2.1 oz (60 g), male 2.6 oz (74 g). Light blue bare face skin and whitish wattles. Crown, lores, cheeks, and throat black, with white brow stripe and broad white streaks at side of throat. Gray underparts with brownish belly and undertail. Central ranges of New Guinea from...

Shrikeflycatcher

OTHER COMMON NAMES English African shrike-flycatcher French Gobemouche corcheur German Schn pperw rger Spanish Atrapamoscas Africano. The body length is about 6 in (15 cm). The iris is bright orange. The male is colored glossy black on the head, back, wings, and tail, and white on the rump, underparts, and under-wings. The female and immature are brownish, and their breast is brown-streaked on white. A widespread, nonmigratory species of central tropical...

Apprentice Behavior In Bower Birds

The family includes species with socially monogamous and polygynous mating systems. Monogamous pairs of catbirds defend an all-purpose territory. Males do not assist with nest building, incubation, or brooding of nestlings (which they do feed). The promiscuous males of the 17 polygynous bowerbirds defend only the immediate area of their bowers. A seasonal hyperabundance of fruits permits promiscuous males to spend inordinate amounts of time at their courts, in attracting courting females, while...

Timor figbird

Specoterasic viridis Vieillot, 1816, Australasia Kupang, Timor. other common names English Green figbird French Sphecothere figuier German Feigenpirol Spanish Papahigos de Timor. 8.7-9.5 in 22-24 cm 2.4-2.8 oz 75-80 gm , both sexes. A small, slender figbird males are plain olive ventrally, with gray throat, undertail, and feet. Dark head with rough bare eyeskin colored deep buff but changing to red when excited. Throat to vent greenish yellow. Primary and secondary vine and gallery forest,...

Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania. Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of M nster M nster, Germany...

Behavior

Sylviids range from highly arboreal to almost entirely terrestrial. They are generally very active but often quite secre tive and skulking. Most species inhabit dense vegetation, and are most easily located and identified by voice. The carriage of many of the Old World warblers is more or less horizontal. Flight ranges from very weak in some sedentary Afrotrop-ical species, to strong and sustained in long-distance migrants. The gait is typically a hop, but some species run. The Old World...

Orangebreasted blue flycatcher

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Tickell's blue flycatcher French Gobemouche de Tickell German Braunbrust-Blauschn pper Spanish Niltava de Tickell. The body length is about 5.5 in 14 cm . The sexes are dimorphic. The male has a blue back and top of the head, a black mask around the eyes, a rufus chest, and a white belly. The female is colored a more subdued blue above, with a white throat and belly and rufus-washed chest. The juvenile is brown with whitish spots and...

Whitethroated fantail

Platyrhynchos albicollis Vieillot, 1818, Bengal, India. Eleven subspecies. English White-throated fantail flycatcher French Rhipidure a gorge blanche German Weisskehl-facherschwanz Spanish Cola de Abanico de Garganta Blanca. 6.9-8.1 in 17.5-20.5 cm 0.3-0.45 oz 9-13 g . Mostly gray with white throat, brow, and tip of tail. Northeastern Pakistan, India, southeastern Tibet, southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, Asia, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. Foothills and adjacent plains up to 10,000 ft...

Gibberbird

Epthianura lovensis Ashby, 1911, Leigh Creek, South Australia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Gibber chat, desert chat, desert bird French Epthia-nure d'Ashby German W stentrugschmatzer Spanish Curruca Des rtica. 5 in 13 cm 0.65 oz 18 g . Yellow cheek, throat, and under-parts crown and up-perparts are sandy brown and used as camouflage on stony terrain. Borders of Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, and Northern Territory in central Australia. Gibber plains, which are sparsely vegetated,...

Bicolored mousewarbler

Sericornis nigro-rufa Salvadori, 1894, Moroka, New Guinea. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Black-backed mouse-warbler, mid-mountain mouse-babbler French Sericorne noir et roux German Schwarzrucken-Waldhuscher Spanish Ratona Semi Montanes. 5 in 12-13 cm c. 0.35 oz 10 g . Rufous underparts from chin to lower breast. Abdomen rufous or black, depending on subspecies. Upperparts are black, flanks brown. Scattered through central mountains of New Guinea. Solitary, in pairs or small groups. Active, rapidly...

Whitethroat

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Common whitethroat, greater whitethroat French Fauvette grisette German Dorngrasm cke Spanish Curruca Zarcera. 5.5 in 14 cm 0.4-0.9 oz 10-24 g . Medium-sized warbler with gray-brown upperparts, whitish underparts, buffy flanks, gray male or brownish female cap and side of face, and a bright white throat. Folded wing shows significant rufous edging of coverts, secondaries and tertials. Long tail with white outer tail feathers. Breeds in...

Acanthizidae

Class Aves Order Passeriformes Suborder Passeri Oscines Family Acanthizidae Tiny to medium-sized, generally dull brown birds with fine bills, inhabiting canopy down to ground 3.5-10 in 9-27 cm 0.25-2.5 oz 7-70 g Rainforests, eucalypt forests and woodlands, heathland and semi-arid woodland and scrub Extinct 1 species Endangered 2 species Vulnerable 6 species New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Southeast Asia to Philippines, Vietnam, and Thailand New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Southeast Asia...

Little grassbird

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Little marshbird striated grassbird little reedbird marsh warbler French Megalure menue German Zwergschilfsanger. 5.1-5.9 in 13-15 cm . Medium-sized warbler with brownish upperparts, streaked dark pale grayish underparts finely streaked with dark brown. Flight feathers graduated, edged with white. Dense vegetation of marshes, reedbeds, swamps, occasionally mangroves. Solitary. Skulking. Song is three note, plaintive whistle. Flight is...

Fulvouschested jungleflycatcher

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Olive-backed jungle-flycatcher French Gobemouche a dos olive German Olivr cken-Dschungelschnapper Spanish Papamoscas Selv tico de Lomo Olivo. The body length is about 6 in 15 cm . The sexes are colored similarly, with a brownish gray back, white throat and belly, tawny chest, and rufus tail. A widespread species of the Malay Peninsula, parts of the island of Borneo, and the Greater Sunda Islands of Indonesia, including Sumatra, Java,...

Birds IIV

Berlin, Germany George William Archibald, PhD International Crane Foundation Baraboo, Wisconsin Joint Nature Conservation Committee Peterborough, Cambridgeshire United Kingdom Cynthia Ann Berger, MS Pennsylvania State University State College, Pennsylvania Matthew A. Bille, MSc Colorado Springs, Colorado Walter E. Boles, PhD Australian Museum Sydney, New South Wales Australia Carlos Bosque, PhD Universidad Sim n Bolivar Caracas, Venezuela David Brewer, PhD Research...